The common names forĀ Meleagris gallopavo (theĀ wild turkey of North America, but best known worldwide from theĀ domesticated turkey), in other languages also frequently reflect its exotic origins, seen from a European viewpoint, and confusion about where it actually comes from. SeeĀ Turkey (bird) for theĀ etymology of the English name and the scientific nameĀ Meleagris.
From geographic names
- InĀ Irish, it isĀ turcaĆ, an English borrowing.
- InĀ Welsh, it is calledĀ twrci, borrowed from the English word.
As a lot of trade took place through Indian traders, many parts of Europe associated the traders with the potential source of the bird.
- InĀ Armenian, it is calledĀ hndkahav orĀ hntkahav (ÕÕ¶Õ¤ÕÆÕ”Õ°Õ”Õ¾), literally meaning "Indian chicken".
- InĀ Breton, it is calledĀ yar-Indez, "Indian chicken".
- InĀ Catalan, it is calledĀ gall dāindi, literally meaning "Indian chicken".
- InĀ French, it is calledĀ (la) dinde, which comes fromĀ (poulet) dāInde or "(chicken) from India".
- InĀ Georgian, it is called įįįįį£į į (indauri), from įįįįįįį (indoeri) - India.
- InĀ Hebrew, the turkey is calledĀ tarnegol hodu (×Ŗ×Ø× ××× ××××), literally meaning "rooster of India".
- InĀ Italian it is known asĀ pollo d'India, with clear reference to India, although the most common name isĀ tacchino, anĀ onomatopoeia for the sound a turkey makes.
- InĀ Maltese, it is calledĀ dundjan (pronouncedĀ doonDYAHN), another, maybe not so obvious, reference to India.
- InĀ Polish andĀ Ukrainian, it isĀ indyk, a reference to India. Similarly it isĀ indik (××× ×××§) inĀ Yiddish, also referring to India.
- InĀ Russian, it is calledĀ indeyka (ŠøŠ½Š“ŠµŠ¹ŠŗŠ°), relating to India.
- InĀ Turkish, the bird is calledĀ hindi which means "from & related toĀ India"
- TheĀ Dutch word is "kalkoen", derived from the cityĀ Calicut in India, likewiseĀ Danish,Ā Estonian andĀ Norwegian kalkun, Swedish kalkon, andĀ Finnish kalkkuna, as well as inĀ Papiamento kalakuna.
- InĀ Indonesian, it is calledĀ kalkun and derived from Dutch wordĀ kalkoen.
- InĀ Icelandic, it isĀ kalkĆŗnn.
- InĀ Lithuanian, it isĀ kalakutas.
- InĀ Sinhala, it is calledĀ kalukuma, derived from Dutch wordĀ kalkoen.
- InĀ Khmer, the turkey is calledĀ moan barang (įį¶įįįį¶įį¶įį), which translates as "French chicken". (The term "French" is frequently used in Cambodia to refer to things and people of Western origin, as historically Cambodia's primary contact with the West was via French colonization.)
- All modernĀ Goidelic languages refer to turkeys as French chicken or cockerel:
- Scottish Gaelic:Ā cearc-Fhrangach "French chicken"
- Irish:Ā cearc fhrancach "French chicken"
- Manx:Ā kellagh frangagh "French cockerel".
- InĀ Croatian and inĀ Slovene it is calledĀ puran, derived from the ItalianĀ peruano, meaning "Peruvian."
- InĀ Hawaiian, it is calledĀ pelehu, from the Portuguese. The Hawaiian noblemanĀ Boki acquired turkeys during the South American leg of his world tour and introduced both the bird and the Hawaiian transliteration of the Portuguese termĀ peru to Hawai'i and later, in 1827, to Rotuma.
- InĀ Hindi, it is called Peru (ą¤Ŗą„ą¤°ą„), a borrowing fromĀ Portuguese.
- InĀ Pakistan it's known as "Peroo" (Ł¾ŪŲ±Ł), a borrowing fromĀ Portuguese.
- InĀ Portuguese andĀ Galician, the word for turkey isĀ peru, which also refers to the countryĀ Peru, but once referred to much of the Spanish-controlled Americas, includingĀ Mexico, where turkeys come from.
- InĀ Rotuman, it is calledĀ perehu, from theĀ Portuguese viaĀ Hawaiian pelehu. The Hawaiian noblemanĀ Boki acquired turkeys during the South American leg of his world tour. He introduced both the bird and the Hawaiian transliteration of the Portuguese termĀ peru to Hawai'i and later, in 1827, to Rotuma.
- InĀ Arabic, it is calledĀ dÄ«k rÅ«mÄ« (ŲÆŁŁ Ų±ŁŁ
Ł) orĀ daĒ§ÄĒ§ rÅ«mÄ« (ŲÆŲ¬Ų§Ų¬ Ų±ŁŁ
Ł) meaning "Roman/Greek/Byzantine rooster/chicken". The term derives fromĀ RĆ»m, a word which, while derived from the word "Rome", most commonly referred to the Greeks of the Eastern Roman/Byzantine Empire or certain parts ofĀ Anatolia.
- InĀ Levantine Arabic, it's commonly called deek habash ŲÆŁŁ ŲŲØŲ“, as in Rooster of Abyssinia/Ethiopia.
- InĀ Moroccan Arabic, it is more commonly called ŲØŁŲØŁĀ bibi.
- InĀ Egyptian Arabic, use of the termĀ daĒ§ÄĒ§ is generally deprecated andĀ dÄ«k rÅ«mÄ« is used exclusively.
- InĀ Vietnamese, it is calledĀ gĆ tĆ¢y, meaning "Western chicken"
- in Malaysia it's called 'Ayam Belanda' which means "Dutch chicken"
- inĀ Breton, one of its names isĀ yar-Spagn, "Spanish chicken"
From other origins
- InĀ Japanese, the turkey is calledĀ shichimenchÅ (ć·ćć”ć³ćć§ć¦ / äøé¢é³„), which literally means "seven-faced bird".
- InĀ Korean, the turkey is calledĀ chilmyeonjo (ģ¹ ė©“ģ”° / äøé¢é³„), which translates as "seven-faced bird". This is said to reflect the ability of the bird, particularly the male, to change the form of its face depending on its mood.
The general source -Ā Turkic languages, from where "blue bird" was borrowed to many languages of the Caucasian region:
- InĀ Nogai, it is calledĀ kĆ¶kĆ¼Å”, fromĀ kĆ¶k (blue) andĀ quÅ” (bird).
- InĀ Abaza, it is Š³Š²Š°Š³Š²ŃŃ (gvagvyshch).
- InĀ Abkhazian, it is Š°Š³ŃŠ°Š³ŃŃŃ (aguagushā).
- InĀ Adyg, it is Š³ŃŃŠ³ŃŃ (guegush).
- InĀ Karachai, it is Š³Š¾Š³ŃŃ (gogush).
- InĀ Ossetian, it is called Š³Š¾Š³ŃŠ· (gogyz).
- InĀ Blackfoot, it is calledĀ Ć³mahksipi'kssĆĆ, meaning "big bird".
- InĀ Cherokee (Tsalagi) it is called Gv-na(guh-nuh).
- InĀ Cree, it is called misihew (Plains Cree), miÅ”ihyew (East Cree), miÅ”ilew (Moose Cree), miÅ”irew (Atikamekw), etc... All are modern dialectal versions of the historical form, *miÅ”ihrew, meaning "largeĀ gallinaceous bird."
- InĀ Lakota, it isĀ waglekÅ”un.
- InĀ Miami, it isĀ nalaaohki pileewa, meaning "native fowl".
- InĀ Nahuatl, it isĀ huehxÅlÅtl, which is reflected in MexicanĀ Spanish asĀ Guajolote.
- InĀ Ojibwe, it isĀ mizise (į„įÆį¦į / į„įÆį) (plural:Ā miziseg).
- InĀ Passamaquoddy, it isĀ nem.
- InĀ Winnebago, it isĀ ZiizĆke.
- InĀ Albanian, it is calledĀ gjel deti meaning sea rooster (orĀ pule deti meaning sea hen). It is also calledĀ biba (female turkey) andĀ biban (male turkey).
- InĀ Bulgarian, it is ŠŃŠ¹ŠŗŠ° (puijka) but a dialect version are ŠŠøŃŠøŃŠŗŠ° (misirka) (from dialect name of corn Š¼ŠøŃŠøŃĀ misir) or Š¤ŠøŃŠŗŠ° (fitka).
- InĀ Mandarin Chinese, it is calledĀ huoji (ē«é / ē«éø”) meaning "fire chicken" for the color of the head. Other names in Mandarin Chinese includeĀ qimianniao (äøé¢é³„ / äøé¢éø) meaning "seven-faced bird",Ā tujinji (åé¦é / åé¦éø”) meaning "cough up a brocade chicken" andĀ tushouji (åē¶¬é / åē»¶éø”) meaning "cough up a ribbon chicken" due to their red wattles.
- InĀ Czech, it is calledĀ krocan divokĆ½.
- InĀ Fijian, it is calledĀ taki (from English) orĀ pipi, an enigmatic term shared withĀ Samoan with undefined origin in either language.
- InĀ German, it is calledĀ Truthahn, derived fromĀ trut for the call used to lure the bird, andĀ Hahn, rooster.
- InĀ Greek, it is usually called Ī³Ī±Ī»ĪæĻĪæĻĪ»Ī± (ghalopoula), a diminutive form of the term Ī³Ī¬Ī»ĪæĻĀ gĆ”los "bird", derived from ItalianĀ gallo. Various local dialects use other forms, however: Ī¹Ī½Ī“Ī¹Ī¬Ī½ĪæĻ or Ī“Ī¹Ī¬Ī½ĪæĻ ((in)diĆ”nos, "Indian bird"), Ī¼Ī¹ĻĪÆĻĪŗĪ± (misĆrka, "Egyptian bird", from TurkishĀ misir, Egypt), ĪŗĪæĻĻĪŗĪæĻ (kĆŗrkos) derived from local Slavic dialects, ĪŗĪæĻĪ²ĪæĻ (kĆŗvos) in Crete and ĪŗĪ±ĪŗĪ½ĪÆ (kaknĆ) inĀ Mytilene, both of uncertain etymology.
- InĀ Hungarian, it is calledĀ vadpulyka.
- InĀ Italian, it is calledĀ tacchino.
- InĀ Malay, it is called eitherĀ Ayam Piru from the Portuguese name for the bird orĀ Ayam Belanda (Dutch chicken).
- InĀ Malayalam spoken in Calicut, it is calledĀ khalgam.
- InĀ Persian it is calledĀ Booghalamoon (ŲØŁŁŁŁ
ŁŁ) which may be anĀ onomatopoeia of the male bird's distinctive gobble.
- InĀ Romanian, the word for turkey isĀ curcan (fem.Ā curca from Bulgarian "ŠŗŃŃŠŗŠ°" meaning chicken)
- InĀ Samoan, it is calledĀ pipi, an enigmatic term shared withĀ Fijian with undefined origin in either language.
- InĀ Scots, it is called aĀ bubbly Jock.
- InĀ Serbian, it is calledĀ ŃŃŃŠŗŠ° (Äurka).
- InĀ Spanish, the turkey is calledĀ pavo, Latin forĀ peafowl. InĀ Mexican Spanish, it is also known asĀ guajolote, a name ofĀ Nahuatl origin, fromĀ hueyxolotl meaning ābigxolotlā; among other names used in specific regions areĀ cĆ³cono,Ā pĆpila,Ā gĆ¼Ćjolo, the later cognate with guajolote, used in Sinaloa and Southern Sonora. InĀ Central American Spanish, it is also known asĀ chompipe,Ā chunto orĀ chumpe. InĀ Cuban Spanish it is known asĀ guanajo. In some dialects ofĀ Colombian Spanish it is known asĀ pisco.
- InĀ Swahili, the turkey is calledĀ bata mzinga meaning "the great duck".
- InĀ Tagalog, the turkey is calledĀ pabo from the Spanish wordĀ pavo.
- InĀ Tamil, it is calledĀ Vaan Kozhi (ą®µą®¾ą®©ąÆ ą®ąÆą®“ą®æ) meaning "Sky Chicken".
- InĀ Telugu, it is calledĀ Ginni kodi punju/Seema Kodi/Maga Seema Kodi (ą°ą°æą°Øą±ą°Øą°æ ą°ą±ą°”ą°æ /ą°øą±ą°® ą°ą±ą°”ą°æ/ą°®ą° ą°øą±ą°® ą°ą±ą°”ą°æ), meaning "Guineafowl"
- InĀ Thai, it is calledĀ Kai Nguang (ą¹ąøą¹ąøąø§ąø), which means "(elephant) trunk chicken".
- InĀ Urdu, it is calledĀ feel murgh ( ŁŪŁ Ł
Ų±Ųŗ ), meaning "elephant chicken".
- InĀ Yoruba, it is calledĀ TĆ²lĆ³tĆ²lĆ³.
- InĀ Lazuri, it is calledĀ k'ok'uÅi.
- InĀ Kurdistan, it is calledĀ ŁŁ Ł,Ų¹Ł ŁŲ©Ų“ŁŲ“
- ^ Cherokee Nation Foundation Dictionary
- ^ Duden, Band 7, Das HerkunftswĆ¶rterbuch, 1963,Ā ISBN 3-411-00907-1