L'any 1975 vaig comen√ßar com t√®cnic de sistemes¬† a Honeywell Bull que havia heretat els SO's Gecos i Multics de GE condemnada per la llei antitrust..
Aquests SO's van ser programats¬† (Time sharing + ASR33=> en tinc un) per presos d'Alcatraz que redu√Įen penes, el Time sharing de GE va tenir el primer Basic interpreter de la hist√≤ria! (mira la revista Kilobaud a baix)
Bell Laboratories emprava Multics i la seva gent va crear la "B facility o B language" (B¬† de Bell) quan Kerningan i Ritchie¬† van fer un SO pel seu PDP8 (subset de Multics amb les seves mateixes ordres: lwd, cwd, etc..).. li van dir "Unics -Unix"¬† contraposici√≥ de¬† Multics (ja que era m√©s senzill ) encara que amb un llenguatge m√©s evolucionat...B language+1 => C language
El 1980 es va introduir el GCOS8 amb gesti√≥ de mem√≤ria virtual.. ten√≠em de mitja 256Kword (de 36bits) de mem√≤ria RAM (el hardware nom√©s tenia 18 bits per a "word addresses") i els discs llavors van passar a ser de 500Mb com una gran cosa!)
Varem comen√ßar a configurar m√†quines amb 4Mbyte mem√≤ria virtual... per√≤ amb la tira de "missing page fault" resultaven ser m√©s lentes que la pera!! vam haver de comprar "RAM hardwired pages" √©s a dir comprar RAM per a que el SO no hagu√©s d'anar a buscar "missing pages" al disc dur => de fet empravem la mem√≤ria virtual per adressar RAM! circunvoltant la limitaci√≥ d'adressatge del HW
T'explico aix√≥ pel paral¬∑lelisme amb avui... he esbrinat que el problema del penjament del meu e-machines era tenir nom√©s 2Gbyte de mem√≤ria:
Un amic m'ha passat la mateixa versi√≥¬† (13.10) de LUBUNTU (t√© un desktop com el de Windows que gasta pocs recursos) i va perfecte! ..per√≥ ho haig de tornar a instal¬∑lar tot!
Possiblement la versi√≥ 13.10 d'UBUNTU vagi perfecte amb 4Gbyte per√≤ amb 2Gbyte ha d'accedir massa a la mem√≤ria virtual=> disk.. (quan t√© les missing page fault de GCOS8) i acaba penjant-se...
News from 1978
John Arnold/Dick Whipple
by faint praise. You let pass D. A.
Harrod's remark that he uses a
FORTRAN with a Double Com-
plex Hyperbolic Tangent func-
tion without bothering to ask just
who needs such a function. I am a
semi-retired electronic engineer,
and I have never needed one. I
also spent my time programming
in an engineering environment
for several years, and now do
varied types of programming.
"I started programming on an
IBM 602A Electromechanical
Calculating Card Punch, plug-
board-programmed yet . . . then
to a 607 electronic machine
(would you believe vacuum tubes),
During this time I programmed
on an IBM 650 in a symbolic
language called SOAP (Symbolic
Optimum Assembly Program).
Next came FORTRAN program-
ming on the IBM 7000 series, fol-
lowed by a few years' program -
ming an IBM 1620 in a symbolic
language, SPS, in FORTRAN
and in machine language. I also
used a FORTRAN dialect called
"A few years out of program-
ming, I started using a time-
sharing system having two
Honeywell 6000 (old GE 635)
processors hooked together and
operating as one big computer. It
had FORTRAN, BASIC, CO-
BOL and a few other languages
available. When I got on the sys-
tem I received handbooks on the
various languages. That was my
first look at BASIC. After look-
ing it over, despite my former ex-
perience with FORTRAN, I saw
that I could program anything I
would ever need to do in BASIC,
and do it much more quickly, so I
made the switch. I did write a few
programs in the time-sharing ver-
sion of FORTRAN IV, but these
only served to convince me more..
that BASIC was the language to
"After two years on this sys-
tem I purchased an Altair 8800A
in kit form and let my 16-year old
son assemble it for me. I got 4K
of memory and 4K BASIC and
played with it long enough to con-
vince me that I had a real comput-
er, not a toy, and then got 24K
more of memory and both 8K and
12K BASIC, all Altair Version
3.2, paper tape. I used the
ASR-33 TTY I had used on Ful-
ton Data Systems' time-sharing
system. I am pleased with what I
have and would not put FOR-
TRAN in my machine if someone
gave it to me. My programs do
not use that DCHT function, but
neither are they trivial.
"Much of my computer's time
is spent predicting the future
course of the stock market . To do
this I make a Fourier analysis of
the past price action to determine
the cycles present in the data and
then project these into the future.
Each point in a prediction in-
volves the sum of 30 or more trig-
onometric functions, and the
delay between printing lines is
only about two seconds. If the
TTY had a one line buffer there
would be no delay at all. I also do
a lot of word handling, including
large alphabetic sorts. Using
my own improvement of the
Shell sort algorithm, these run
"I can usually sit down and
write a new program and have it
running before I would be able to
write the FORMAT, EQUIVA-
LENCE and COMMON state-
ments of a FORTRAN program.
I must have hard copy from
formed letters, not a matrix, as
my output must be used as offset
masters after being reduced half
size. Therefore, I am stuck with
the TTY and am usually I/O
bound. Increased speed would
help me little, if at all.
"Incidentally, the Altair
BASIC is far more powerful than
that on the time-sharing system.
Of course, the system had a won-
derful operating system and un-
limited disk storage, which was
nice, but their BASIC was posi-
tively primitive compared to
Altair's. I use the 8K BASIC
almost exclusively to conserve
memory space, and find it far bet-
ter than that on Fulton Data Sys-
tems. I have also compared it to
various microprocessor BASICs
and found it superior.
"For example, North Star
BASIC would be unusable in my
word-processing work. Its sub-
scripted string table capability is a
farce. I must have multidimen-
sional string table capability
without wasting memory by
filling in short strings with blanks
to the length of the longest strings.
The built-in Mini-Max function is
of great help in automatically
selecting the proper scale values
for plots of future stock-market
movements. Truly, the software
is the computer, and Altair
BASIC makes a fine computer.
"This has been a long letter,
but I hope it has convinced you
boys that BASIC is not just for
beginners ‚ÄĒ if you have a good
BASIC. I recently read that a
large time-sharing system has
been set up in Japan, used jointly
by three of the largest universities.
The primary language on the sys-
tem is an expanded BASIC. I
have an idea that much of the op-
position to BASIC comes from
programmers who are afraid that
BASIC will make programmers
so common that their livelihood
will be in danger. Now let's see
you defend BASIC for what it
really is: a very good program-
ming language, simple enough
for beginners to play with, but
capable enough, in the hands of
an expert, to do anything any of
the other languages will do."
BASIC‚ÄĒ Here to Stay
Products 10 - 20 - The system supports redirectable I/O, conversion of ASCII to hex, and ..... sharing system having two Honeywell 6000 (old GE 635) processors¬†...
11/05/1979 - Full text of "Kilobaud Microcomputing Magazine (May 1979)" ..... The C2 series products utilize an upper and lower case ASCII type keyboard which is treated as a scanned array by the ...... 8D0504 $1 50 This Honeywell No.
Magazine kilobaud. Understandable for beginners ... interesting for experts. June 1978 ... 57 One Keyboard: Hex and ASCII... simple converter circuit. 60 Is the Malibu ...... GIANT BOOK & SOFTWARE LIBRARY HONEYWELL . . OVER 170¬†...
Resultats de la cerca
Bemer's History of ASCII Creation -- Introducing the Backslash into the Character Set. ... John Auwaerter, V.P. of Engineering of that same Teletype Corp., and¬†...
R.W.Bemer, "A software engineer's workshop: tools and techniques", in ... R.W.Bemer, "A view of the history of the ISO character code", ... Sociological history of ASCII. ... NordData, Copenhagen, 1973 Aug, Honeywell Computer J. 8, No.
Marie, Mich.; programmer extraordinaire; inventor of many terms in common ... editor, Honeywell Computer Journal, 1972-1974; senior consulting engineer, ... Bemer is the inventor of the words "Cobol," and "CODASYL," six ASCII characters, and ... He was not the inventor of ASCII; a hard-working committee surveyed many¬†...
08/03/2013 - Without the invention of the computer code ASCII, there would be no e-mail, ... 1941 Certificate of aeronautical engineering at the Curtiss-Wright Technical ... 1974 - 1990 Works as an independent consultant at Honeywell.
To understand the original intent of the ASCII control codes, you have to think of ... enter into computer functions as computer engineers might want to come up with. .... R. W. Bemer, "A View of the History of the ISO Character Code", Honeywell ...
an history of Large Systems in GE, Honeywell, NEC and Bull ... continuation and derivative engineering for the H-200 product line from Honeywell. ... It supported both the BCD and the ASCII character set as well as decimal arithmetics.
7 Code examples; 8 Humor; 9 See also; 10 References; 11 Further reading ... Fortran especially suited to technical applications such as electrical engineering. .... Perhaps the most significant development in the early history of FORTRAN was the ... for lexical comparison of strings, based upon the ASCII collating sequence.
1 System architecture and concepts; 2 History; 3 GCOS8 Storage Units; 4 See also ... The top-level virtual memory architecture also simplifies sharing of code and data in a ... After Honeywell acquired GE's computer division, GECOS-III was renamed GCOS 3, .... WORD, Word, 36 bits, 6 BCD chars, 4 ASCII chars, 4 bytes.
assertion is that a standard code for graphic eharacters is a scientiÔ¨Āc ... E. H. Clamons. HONEYWELL COMPUTER JOURNAL 143 ... of the telephone industry is history. The 19605 were ... ings to the bit~patterns which normally represent ASCII characters. ..... tor of Defense Research and Engineering of the De- partment of¬†...
Robert W. Bemer (link)
Published Papers -- Robert W. Bemer (1-30)
This document covers papers 1-60, from 1951 through 1970.
For papers 61-122, from 1970 August to present. Click here.
- R.W.Bemer, "Machine Method: Iterative Solution of Games",
RAND Memorandum RM-595-PR, 1951
- R.W.Bemer, "Polynomial relaxation coefficients",
ACM Annual Meeting, Phila., 1955 Sep
- R.W.Bemer, "PRINT I - A proposed coding system for the IBM Type 705",
Proc. Western Joint Computer Conf., 1956 May
- R.W.Bemer, "Reference Manual, PRINT I system for the 705", IBM Corp., 1956 Oct
- R.W.Bemer, "Report on history and use of automatic coding",
Proc. GUIDE, Second Session, Appendix Z, 1-6, 1957 Feb 13-15
- R.W.Bemer, "Why the engineer should know computer programming",
Automatic Control, 1957 Feb
- R.W.Bemer, "How to consider a computer", Data Control Section,
No earlier published article, describing commercial timesharing
Automatic Control Magazine, 1957 Mar, 66-69
(which the Internet is), has ever been found.
- R.W.Bemer, "PRINT I - an automatic coding system for the IBM 705",
Automatic Coding, Monograph #3, Proc. Automatic Coding Symposium,
Franklin Institute, 1957 Apr, 29-38
- R.W.Bemer, "The status of automatic programming for scientific computation",
Proc. 4th Annual Computer Applications Symposium,
Armour Research Foundation, 1957 Oct 24-25, 107-117
- R.W.Bemer, "A machine method for square root computation",
Commun. ACM 1, No. 1, 6-7, 1958 Jan
- R.W.Bemer, "XTRAN - a compatible superstructure to FORTRAN,with growth
possibilities", Proc. GUIDE, 1958 May
An ALGOL predecessor from IBM
- R.W.Bemer, "A subroutine method for calculating logarithms",
Commun. ACM 1, No. 5, 5-7, 1958 May
- R.W.Bemer, "Editor's note on series approximation truncation",
Commun. ACM 1, No. 9, 3-5, 1958 Sep
- R.W.Bemer, "Simulation programs", Commun. ACM 1, No. 11, 5-6, 1958 Nov
- R.W.Bemer, "A checklist of intelligence for programming systems",
Commun. ACM 2, No. 3, 8-13, 1959 Mar
- R.W.Bemer, "A table of symbol pairs", Commun. ACM 2, No. 4, 10-11, 1959 Apr
- R.W.Bemer, "Evaluating intelligence for programming systems",
Automatic Control, 1959 Apr, 22-24
- R.W.Bemer, "A proposal for a generalized card code of 256 characters",
Commun. ACM 2, No. 9, 19-23, 1959 Sep
-- Computing Reviews 00025
Early public hint of 8-bit bytes to come.
- R.W.Bemer, W.Buchholz, "An extended character set standard",
IBM Tech. Pub. TR00.18000.705, 1960 Jan, rev. TR00.721, 1960 Jun
-- Computing Reviews 00813
- R.W.Bemer, "A proposal for character code compatibility",
Commun. ACM 3, No. 2, 71-72 (1960 Feb)
-- Computing Reviews 00320
-- Computer Abstracts 60-865
Here was disclosed Bemer's invention of escape sequences. (See it)
- R.W.Bemer, "Comment on COBOL",
Management and Business Automation, 1960 Mar 22
- R.W.Bemer, "Do it by the numbers - digital shorthand",
Commun. ACM 3, No. 10, 530-536, 1960 Oct
-- Computer Abstracts 61-199
-- Picture and story, NY Herald Tribune, front page, Section 2, 1960 Jul 05
This method programmed for RCA by C. Berners-Lee,
father of Tim Berners-Lee, father of the Web.
Also treated in David Kahn's classic "The Codebreakers",
and acknowledged as probably unbreakable then.
- R.W.Bemer, "Survey of coded character representation",
Commun. ACM 3, No. 12, 639-641, 1960 Dec
-- Computing Reviews 00639
-- Computer Abstracts 61-287
Exposing the Babel of internal computer codes,
the impetus for the creation of ASCII.
- R.W.Bemer, "Data compression system",
IBM Technical Disclosures Bull. 3, 8-9, 1961 Jan
- R.W.Bemer, "Survey of modern programming techniques",
The Computer Bulletin 4, No. 4, 127-135, 1961 Mar
-- Computing Reviews 01213
-- Computer Abstracts 61-1025
- R.W.Bemer, "Editor's note on binary reciprocals of decimal integers",
Commun. ACM 4, No. 4, 116, 1961 Apr
-- Computer Abstracts 61-1909
- R.W.Bemer, H.J.Smith, Jr., F.A.Williams,
"Design of an improved transmission/data processing code",
Commun. ACM 4, No. 5, 212-217, 225, 1961 May
-- Computer Abstracts 61-1920
ASCII in its original form.
- M.Grems, R.W.Bemer, F.A.Williams, "IBM Glossary for Information Processing",
- R.W.Bemer, "The present status, achievement, and trends of programming
for commercial data processing", chapter in Digitale Informationswandler,
Vieweg & Sons, Braunschweig, Germany, 1962, J. Wiley, 1962, 312-349
-- Computer Abstracts 62-1630
- R.W.Bemer, "An international movement in programming languages", in
Computer Applications Symp., Spartan Books, Baltimore, MD, 1962, 204-214
Published Papers -- Robert W. Bemer (31-60)
- R.W.Bemer, "Symposium on Programming Languages, IFIP Congress 1962:
Here the world first learned of the SIMULA language.
- R.W.Bemer, W.Buchholz, "Character set",
Chapter 6 in Planning a Computer System, McGraw-Hill, 1962
-- Computer Abstracts 62-2004
- R.W.Bemer, "A note on range transformations for square root and logarithm",
Commun. ACM 6, No. 6, 306-307, 1963 Jun
-- Computing Reviews 04902
-- Computer Abstracts 63-1839
- R.W.Bemer, "The American standard code for information interchange",
Datamation 9, No. 8, 32-36, 1963 Aug, and ibid 9, No. 9, 39-44, 1963 Sep
-- Computing Reviews 04910
-- Computer Abstracts 63-2778
First major article on ASCII after its formal birth.
- R.W.Bemer, "Numerical control and public computing power",
Proc. APT Tech. Meeting, IIT Research Inst., 1964 Jun, 61-74
- Saul Gorn, R.W.Bemer, Julien Green, E.L.Lohse, "Report on CCITT data
communications study group meeting, Commun. ACM 7, No. 3, 152, 1964 Mar
- Saul Gorn, R.W.Bemer, Julien Green, E.L.Lohse, "Proposed American
standard: bit sequencing of the American standard code for information
interchange (ASCII) in serial-by-bit data transmission.
Commun. ACM 7, No. 6, 333-336, 1964 Jun
- R.W.Bemer, J.Booth, "Comments on bit-sequencing of the ASCII in serial-
by-bit data transmission", Commun. ACM 7, No. 8, 483-485, 1964 Aug
-- Computing Reviews 06519
-- Computer Abstracts 64-2270
- R.W.Bemer, "Software systems customized by computer",
Proc. IFIP Congress 1965, Vol. II, 356, 1965 May 24-29
Genesis of the "Software"factory" concept.
- R.W.Bemer, "Economics of programming production", in
Economics of Automatic Data Processing, A.B.Frielink, Ed.,
North Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1965, 155-166
-- Computing Reviews 09742
- R.W.Bemer, "Progress in hardware and software",
Proc. Intl. Data Proc. Conf., Management Centre/Europe, 1966 Mar, 9-11
- R.W.Bemer, "Aspects Economiques de la Production de Software", in
Mecanographie et Informatique, 1966 May
- R.W.Bemer, "Information processing - a bit expensive?",
Forum Editorial, Datamation 12, No. 6, 140, 1966 Jun
- R.W.Bemer, "A short history of FORTRAN", in
C.P.Lecht, The Programmer's FORTRAN II/IV, McGraw-Hill, 1966
- R.W.Bemer, "Economics of programming production",
Datamation 12, No. 9, 32-39, 1966 Sep
- R.W.Bemer, "ESC facility in USASCII",
Letter to the Editor, Commun. ACM 10, No. 4, 202, 1967 Apr
- R.W.Bemer, "A history of ALGOL", in
C.P.Lecht, The Programmer's ALGOL, McGraw-Hill, 1967
- R.W.Bemer, "Software and realtime systems", in
Management Information Systems -- an International Progress Report,
Management Centre/Europe, 30-37, 1967
- R.W.Bemer, "On format effectors", Commun. ACM 10, No. 7, 396, 1967 Jul
- R.W.Bemer, "Towards standards for handwritten zero and oh",
Commun. ACM 10, 8, 513-518, 1967 Aug
-- Computing Reviews 14629
-- Computer Abstracts 67-2508
- R.W.Bemer, Foreword to C.P.Lecht, The Programmer's PL/I, McGraw-Hill, 1968
- R.W.Bemer, A.L.Ellison, "Software instrumentation system for optimum performance",
Proc. IFIP Cong. 68, Stwe 2, Book C, 39-42
-- Computer Abstracts 70-1573
-- Computing Reviews 15765
- R.W.Bemer, "The economics of program production",
Proc. IFIP Congress 68, Booklet I, 13-14
-- Computer Abstracts 70-1409
- R.W.Bemer, "Machine-controlled production environment",
Report NATO Conf, on Stwe. Engg., Garmisch, 94-95, 1968 Oct 7-11
First design document for a Software Factory.
- R.W.Bemer, "Checklist for planning software system production",
Report NATO Conf. on Stwe. Engg., Garmisch, 165-180, 1968 Oct 7-11
- R.W.Bemer, "Program transfers need early planning", Computerworld, 1969 Feb 05
- R.W.Bemer, "A politico-social history of ALGOL", in
Annual Review of Automatic Programming 5, Pergamon Press, 1969, 151-237
-- Computing Reviews 18976
First definitive history of ALGOL development.
- R.W.Bemer, "Program transferability",
Proc. Spring Joint Computer Conf. 34, AFIPS Press, Montvale, NJ, 606-607, 1969
-- Computer Abstracts 69-3162
- R.W.Bemer, "Escape to reality",
Forum Editorial, Datamation 15, No. 8, 239-240, 1969 Aug
- R.W.Bemer, "Manageable software engineering", in
Software Engineering 1, Proc. COINS III, Academic Press,
New York, London, 1970, 121-138
-- Computing Reviews 21123
Forward to Papers 61-122
Back to Home Page