03-05-2014  (3407 lectures) Categoria: Bull_GE

Ascii kilobaud magazine

L'any 1975 vaig començar com tècnic de sistemes  a Honeywell Bull que havia heretat els SO's Gecos i Multics de GE condemnada per la llei antitrust..

Aquests SO's van ser programats¬† (Time sharing + ASR33=> en tinc un) per presos d'Alcatraz que redu√Įen penes, el Time sharing de GE va tenir el primer Basic interpreter de la hist√≤ria! (mira la revista Kilobaud a baix)

Cal saber també que l'ASCII el va concebir un enginyer "col·lega" meu de Honeywell

Robert W. Bemer (link)

Bell Laboratories emprava Multics i la seva gent va crear la "B facility o B language" (B  de Bell) quan Kerningan i Ritchie  van fer un SO pel seu PDP8 (subset de Multics amb les seves mateixes ordres: lwd, cwd, etc..).. li van dir "Unics -Unix"  contraposició de  Multics (ja que era més senzill ) encara que amb un llenguatge més evolucionat...B language+1 => C language

El 1980 es va introduir el GCOS8 amb gestió de memòria virtual.. teníem de mitja 256Kword (de 36bits) de memòria RAM (el hardware només tenia 18 bits per a "word addresses") i els discs llavors van passar a ser de 500Mb com una gran cosa!)
Varem començar a configurar màquines amb 4Mbyte memòria virtual... però amb la tira de "missing page fault" resultaven ser més lentes que la pera!! vam haver de comprar "RAM hardwired pages" és a dir comprar RAM per a que el SO no hagués d'anar a buscar "missing pages" al disc dur => de fet empravem la memòria virtual per adressar RAM! circunvoltant la limitació d'adressatge del HW

T'explico aixó pel paral·lelisme amb avui... he esbrinat que el problema del penjament del meu e-machines era tenir només 2Gbyte de memòria:

Un amic m'ha passat la mateixa versió  (13.10) de LUBUNTU (té un desktop com el de Windows que gasta pocs recursos) i va perfecte! ..peró ho haig de tornar a instal·lar tot!

Possiblement la versió 13.10 d'UBUNTU vagi perfecte amb 4Gbyte però amb 2Gbyte ha d'accedir massa a la memòria virtual=> disk.. (quan té les missing page fault de GCOS8) i acaba penjant-se...


Kilobaud Magazine
News from 1978
BASIC FORUM John Arnold/Dick Whipple by faint praise. You let pass D. A. Harrod's remark that he uses a FORTRAN with a Double Com- plex Hyperbolic Tangent func- tion without bothering to ask just who needs such a function. I am a semi-retired electronic engineer, and I have never needed one. I also spent my time programming in an engineering environment for several years, and now do varied types of programming. "I started programming on an IBM 602A Electromechanical Calculating Card Punch, plug- board-programmed yet . . . then to a 607 electronic machine (would you believe vacuum tubes), also plugboard-programmed. During this time I programmed on an IBM 650 in a symbolic language called SOAP (Symbolic Optimum Assembly Program). Next came FORTRAN program- ming on the IBM 7000 series, fol- lowed by a few years' program - ming an IBM 1620 in a symbolic language, SPS, in FORTRAN and in machine language. I also used a FORTRAN dialect called FORCOM. "A few years out of program- ming, I started using a time- sharing system having two Honeywell 6000 (old GE 635) processors hooked together and operating as one big computer. It had FORTRAN, BASIC, CO- BOL and a few other languages available. When I got on the sys- tem I received handbooks on the various languages. That was my first look at BASIC. After look- ing it over, despite my former ex- perience with FORTRAN, I saw that I could program anything I would ever need to do in BASIC, and do it much more quickly, so I made the switch. I did write a few programs in the time-sharing ver- sion of FORTRAN IV, but these only served to convince me more.. that BASIC was the language to use. "After two years on this sys- tem I purchased an Altair 8800A in kit form and let my 16-year old son assemble it for me. I got 4K of memory and 4K BASIC and played with it long enough to con- vince me that I had a real comput- er, not a toy, and then got 24K more of memory and both 8K and 12K BASIC, all Altair Version 3.2, paper tape. I used the ASR-33 TTY I had used on Ful- ton Data Systems' time-sharing system. I am pleased with what I have and would not put FOR- TRAN in my machine if someone gave it to me. My programs do not use that DCHT function, but neither are they trivial. "Much of my computer's time is spent predicting the future course of the stock market . To do this I make a Fourier analysis of the past price action to determine the cycles present in the data and then project these into the future. Each point in a prediction in- volves the sum of 30 or more trig- onometric functions, and the delay between printing lines is only about two seconds. If the TTY had a one line buffer there would be no delay at all. I also do a lot of word handling, including large alphabetic sorts. Using my own improvement of the Shell sort algorithm, these run fairly rapidly. "I can usually sit down and write a new program and have it running before I would be able to write the FORMAT, EQUIVA- LENCE and COMMON state- ments of a FORTRAN program. I must have hard copy from formed letters, not a matrix, as my output must be used as offset masters after being reduced half size. Therefore, I am stuck with the TTY and am usually I/O bound. Increased speed would help me little, if at all. "Incidentally, the Altair BASIC is far more powerful than that on the time-sharing system. Of course, the system had a won- derful operating system and un- limited disk storage, which was nice, but their BASIC was posi- tively primitive compared to Altair's. I use the 8K BASIC almost exclusively to conserve memory space, and find it far bet- ter than that on Fulton Data Sys- tems. I have also compared it to various microprocessor BASICs and found it superior. "For example, North Star BASIC would be unusable in my word-processing work. Its sub- scripted string table capability is a farce. I must have multidimen- sional string table capability without wasting memory by filling in short strings with blanks to the length of the longest strings. The built-in Mini-Max function is of great help in automatically selecting the proper scale values for plots of future stock-market movements. Truly, the software is the computer, and Altair BASIC makes a fine computer. "This has been a long letter, but I hope it has convinced you boys that BASIC is not just for beginners ‚ÄĒ if you have a good BASIC. I recently read that a large time-sharing system has been set up in Japan, used jointly by three of the largest universities. The primary language on the sys- tem is an expanded BASIC. I have an idea that much of the op- position to BASIC comes from programmers who are afraid that BASIC will make programmers so common that their livelihood will be in danger. Now let's see you defend BASIC for what it really is: a very good program- ming language, simple enough for beginners to play with, but capable enough, in the hands of an expert, to do anything any of the other languages will do." BASIC‚ÄĒ Here to Stay


  1. Full text of "Kilobaud Magazine (November 1978)"

    Products 10 - 20 - The system supports redirectable I/O, conversion of ASCII to hex, and ..... sharing system having two Honeywell 6000 (old GE 635) processors ...
  2. Full text of "Kilobaud Microcomputing Magazine (May 1979)"

    11/05/1979 - Full text of "Kilobaud Microcomputing Magazine (May 1979)" ..... The C2 series products utilize an upper and lower case ASCII type keyboard which is treated as a scanned array by the ...... 8D0504 $1 50 This Honeywell No.
  3. [PDF]

    The Small Computer Magazine

    Magazine kilobaud. Understandable for beginners ... interesting for experts. June 1978 ... 57 One Keyboard: Hex and ASCII... simple converter circuit. 60 Is the Malibu ...... GIANT BOOK & SOFTWARE LIBRARY HONEYWELL . . OVER 170 ...


Resultats de la cerca

  1. How ASCII Got Its Backslash - Bob Bemer

    www.bobbemer.com/BACSLASH.HTM‎Tradueix aquesta pàgina
    Bemer's History of ASCII Creation -- Introducing the Backslash into the Character Set. ... John Auwaerter, V.P. of Engineering of that same Teletype Corp., and ...
  2. Published Papers of Robert W. Bemer - Bob Bemer

    www.bobbemer.com/PUBS-2.HTM‎Tradueix aquesta pàgina
    R.W.Bemer, "A software engineer's workshop: tools and techniques", in ... R.W.Bemer, "A view of the history of the ISO character code", ... Sociological history of ASCII. ... NordData, Copenhagen, 1973 Aug, Honeywell Computer J. 8, No.
  3. Computer Pioneers - Robert W. Bemer

    computer.org/computer-pioneers/bemer.html‎Tradueix aquesta pàgina
    Marie, Mich.; programmer extraordinaire; inventor of many terms in common ... editor, Honeywell Computer Journal, 1972-1974; senior consulting engineer, ... Bemer is the inventor of the words "Cobol," and "CODASYL," six ASCII characters, and ... He was not the inventor of ASCII; a hard-working committee surveyed many ...
  4. Bob Bemer

    www.thocp.net/biographies/bemer_bob.htm‎Tradueix aquesta pàgina
    08/03/2013 - Without the invention of the computer code ASCII, there would be no e-mail, ... 1941 Certificate of aeronautical engineering at the Curtiss-Wright Technical ... 1974 - 1990 Works as an independent consultant at Honeywell.
  5. Understanding ASCII Codes - Nadcomm

    www.nadcomm.com/ascii_code.htm‎Tradueix aquesta pàgina
    To understand the original intent of the ASCII control codes, you have to think of ... enter into computer functions as computer engineers might want to come up with. .... R. W. Bemer, "A View of the History of the ISO Character Code", Honeywell ...
  6. from GECOS to GCOS8 an history of Large Systems in GE

    www.feb-patrimoine.com/.../gecos_to_gcos8_pa...‎Tradueix aquesta pàgina
    an history of Large Systems in GE, Honeywell, NEC and Bull ... continuation and derivative engineering for the H-200 product line from Honeywell. ... It supported both the BCD and the ASCII character set as well as decimal arithmetics.
  7. Fortran - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortran‎Tradueix aquesta pàgina
    7 Code examples; 8 Humor; 9 See also; 10 References; 11 Further reading ... Fortran especially suited to technical applications such as electrical engineering. .... Perhaps the most significant development in the early history of FORTRAN was the ... for lexical comparison of strings, based upon the ASCII collating sequence.
  8. General Comprehensive Operating System - Wikipedia, the ...

    en.wikipedia.org/.../General_Comprehensive_O...‎Tradueix aquesta pàgina
    1 System architecture and concepts; 2 History; 3 GCOS8 Storage Units; 4 See also ... The top-level virtual memory architecture also simplifies sharing of code and data in a ... After Honeywell acquired GE's computer division, GECOS-III was renamed GCOS 3, .... WORD, Word, 36 bits, 6 BCD chars, 4 ASCII chars, 4 bytes.
  9. [PDF]

    Charater Codes

    archive.computerhistory.org/.../k-8-u2776-Hone...‎Tradueix aquesta pàgina
    assertion is that a standard code for graphic eharacters is a scientiÔ¨Āc ... E. H. Clamons. HONEYWELL COMPUTER JOURNAL 143 ... of the telephone industry is history. The 19605 were ... ings to the bit~patterns which normally represent ASCII characters. ..... tor of Defense Research and Engineering of the De- partment of¬†...


Robert W. Bemer (link)


Published Papers -- Robert W. Bemer (1-30)

This document covers papers 1-60, from 1951 through 1970.
For papers 61-122, from 1970 August to present. Click here.

  1. R.W.Bemer, "Machine Method: Iterative Solution of Games",
    RAND Memorandum RM-595-PR, 1951
  2. R.W.Bemer, "Polynomial relaxation coefficients",
    ACM Annual Meeting, Phila., 1955 Sep
  3. R.W.Bemer, "PRINT I - A proposed coding system for the IBM Type 705",
    Proc. Western Joint Computer Conf., 1956 May
  4. R.W.Bemer, "Reference Manual, PRINT I system for the 705", IBM Corp., 1956 Oct
  5. R.W.Bemer, "Report on history and use of automatic coding",
    Proc. GUIDE, Second Session, Appendix Z, 1-6, 1957 Feb 13-15
  6. R.W.Bemer, "Why the engineer should know computer programming",
    Automatic Control, 1957 Feb
  7. R.W.Bemer, "How to consider a computer", Data Control Section,
    Automatic Control Magazine, 1957 Mar, 66-69
  8. No earlier published article, describing commercial timesharing
    (which the Internet is), has ever been found.

  9. R.W.Bemer, "PRINT I - an automatic coding system for the IBM 705",
    Automatic Coding, Monograph #3, Proc. Automatic Coding Symposium,
    Franklin Institute, 1957 Apr, 29-38
  10. R.W.Bemer, "The status of automatic programming for scientific computation",
    Proc. 4th Annual Computer Applications Symposium,
    Armour Research Foundation, 1957 Oct 24-25, 107-117
  11. R.W.Bemer, "A machine method for square root computation",
    Commun. ACM 1, No. 1, 6-7, 1958 Jan
  12. R.W.Bemer, "XTRAN - a compatible superstructure to FORTRAN,with growth
    possibilities", Proc. GUIDE, 1958 May
    An ALGOL predecessor from IBM
  13. R.W.Bemer, "A subroutine method for calculating logarithms",
    Commun. ACM 1, No. 5, 5-7, 1958 May
  14. R.W.Bemer, "Editor's note on series approximation truncation",
    Commun. ACM 1, No. 9, 3-5, 1958 Sep
  15. R.W.Bemer, "Simulation programs", Commun. ACM 1, No. 11, 5-6, 1958 Nov
  16. R.W.Bemer, "A checklist of intelligence for programming systems",
    Commun. ACM 2, No. 3, 8-13, 1959 Mar
  17. R.W.Bemer, "A table of symbol pairs", Commun. ACM 2, No. 4, 10-11, 1959 Apr
  18. R.W.Bemer, "Evaluating intelligence for programming systems",
    Automatic Control, 1959 Apr, 22-24
  19. R.W.Bemer, "A proposal for a generalized card code of 256 characters",
    Commun. ACM 2, No. 9, 19-23, 1959 Sep
    -- Computing Reviews 00025
    Early public hint of 8-bit bytes to come.
  20. R.W.Bemer, W.Buchholz, "An extended character set standard",
    IBM Tech. Pub. TR00.18000.705, 1960 Jan, rev. TR00.721, 1960 Jun
    -- Computing Reviews 00813


  21. R.W.Bemer, "A proposal for character code compatibility",
    Commun. ACM 3, No. 2, 71-72 (1960 Feb)
    -- Computing Reviews 00320
    -- Computer Abstracts 60-865
    Here was disclosed Bemer's invention of escape sequences. (See it)
  22. R.W.Bemer, "Comment on COBOL",
    Management and Business Automation, 1960 Mar 22
  23. R.W.Bemer, "Do it by the numbers - digital shorthand",
    Commun. ACM 3, No. 10, 530-536, 1960 Oct
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-199
    -- Picture and story, NY Herald Tribune, front page, Section 2, 1960 Jul 05
    This method programmed for RCA by C. Berners-Lee,
    father of Tim Berners-Lee, father of the Web.

    Also treated in David Kahn's classic "The Codebreakers",
    and acknowledged as probably unbreakable then.
  24. R.W.Bemer, "Survey of coded character representation",
    Commun. ACM 3, No. 12, 639-641, 1960 Dec
    -- Computing Reviews 00639
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-287
    Exposing the Babel of internal computer codes,
    the impetus for the creation of ASCII.
  25. R.W.Bemer, "Data compression system",
    IBM Technical Disclosures Bull. 3, 8-9, 1961 Jan
  26. R.W.Bemer, "Survey of modern programming techniques",
    The Computer Bulletin 4, No. 4, 127-135, 1961 Mar
    -- Computing Reviews 01213
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-1025
  27. R.W.Bemer, "Editor's note on binary reciprocals of decimal integers",
    Commun. ACM 4, No. 4, 116, 1961 Apr
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-1909
  28. R.W.Bemer, H.J.Smith, Jr., F.A.Williams,
    "Design of an improved transmission/data processing code",
    Commun. ACM 4, No. 5, 212-217, 225, 1961 May
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-1920
    ASCII in its original form.
  29. M.Grems, R.W.Bemer, F.A.Williams, "IBM Glossary for Information Processing",
    , 1961
  30. R.W.Bemer, "The present status, achievement, and trends of programming
    for commercial data processing", chapter in Digitale Informationswandler,
    Vieweg & Sons, Braunschweig, Germany, 1962, J. Wiley, 1962, 312-349
    -- Computer Abstracts 62-1630
  31. R.W.Bemer, "An international movement in programming languages", in
    Computer Applications Symp., Spartan Books, Baltimore, MD, 1962, 204-214

Published Papers -- Robert W. Bemer (31-60)

  1. R.W.Bemer, "Symposium on Programming Languages, IFIP Congress 1962:
    Here the world first learned of the SIMULA language.
  2. R.W.Bemer, W.Buchholz, "Character set",
    Chapter 6 in Planning a Computer System, McGraw-Hill, 1962
    -- Computer Abstracts 62-2004
  3. R.W.Bemer, "A note on range transformations for square root and logarithm",
    Commun. ACM 6, No. 6, 306-307, 1963 Jun
    -- Computing Reviews 04902
    -- Computer Abstracts 63-1839
  4. R.W.Bemer, "The American standard code for information interchange",
    Datamation 9, No. 8, 32-36, 1963 Aug, and ibid 9, No. 9, 39-44, 1963 Sep
    -- Computing Reviews 04910
    -- Computer Abstracts 63-2778
    First major article on ASCII after its formal birth.
  5. R.W.Bemer, "Numerical control and public computing power",
    Proc. APT Tech. Meeting, IIT Research Inst., 1964 Jun, 61-74
  6. Saul Gorn, R.W.Bemer, Julien Green, E.L.Lohse, "Report on CCITT data
    communications study group meeting, Commun. ACM 7, No. 3, 152, 1964 Mar
  7. Saul Gorn, R.W.Bemer, Julien Green, E.L.Lohse, "Proposed American
    standard: bit sequencing of the American standard code for information
    interchange (ASCII) in serial-by-bit data transmission.
    Commun. ACM 7, No. 6, 333-336, 1964 Jun
  8. R.W.Bemer, J.Booth, "Comments on bit-sequencing of the ASCII in serial-
    by-bit data transmission", Commun. ACM 7, No. 8, 483-485, 1964 Aug
    -- Computing Reviews 06519
    -- Computer Abstracts 64-2270
  9. R.W.Bemer, "Software systems customized by computer",
    Proc. IFIP Congress 1965, Vol. II, 356, 1965 May 24-29
    Genesis of the "Software"factory" concept.
  10. R.W.Bemer, "Economics of programming production", in
    Economics of Automatic Data Processing, A.B.Frielink, Ed.,
    North Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1965, 155-166
    -- Computing Reviews 09742
  11. R.W.Bemer, "Progress in hardware and software",
    Proc. Intl. Data Proc. Conf., Management Centre/Europe, 1966 Mar, 9-11
  12. R.W.Bemer, "Aspects Economiques de la Production de Software", in
    Mecanographie et Informatique, 1966 May
  13. R.W.Bemer, "Information processing - a bit expensive?",
    Forum Editorial, Datamation 12, No. 6, 140, 1966 Jun
  14. R.W.Bemer, "A short history of FORTRAN", in
    C.P.Lecht, The Programmer's FORTRAN II/IV, McGraw-Hill, 1966
  15. R.W.Bemer, "Economics of programming production",
    Datamation 12, No. 9, 32-39, 1966 Sep
  16. R.W.Bemer, "ESC facility in USASCII",
    Letter to the Editor, Commun. ACM 10, No. 4, 202, 1967 Apr

  17. R.W.Bemer, "A history of ALGOL", in
    C.P.Lecht, The Programmer's ALGOL, McGraw-Hill, 1967
  18. R.W.Bemer, "Software and realtime systems", in
    Management Information Systems -- an International Progress Report,
    Management Centre/Europe, 30-37, 1967
  19. R.W.Bemer, "On format effectors", Commun. ACM 10, No. 7, 396, 1967 Jul
  20. R.W.Bemer, "Towards standards for handwritten zero and oh",
    Commun. ACM 10, 8, 513-518, 1967 Aug
    -- Computing Reviews 14629
    -- Computer Abstracts 67-2508
  21. R.W.Bemer, Foreword to C.P.Lecht, The Programmer's PL/I, McGraw-Hill, 1968
  22. R.W.Bemer, A.L.Ellison, "Software instrumentation system for optimum performance",
    Proc. IFIP Cong. 68, Stwe 2, Book C, 39-42
    -- Computer Abstracts 70-1573
    -- Computing Reviews 15765
  23. R.W.Bemer, "The economics of program production",
    Proc. IFIP Congress 68, Booklet I, 13-14
    -- Computer Abstracts 70-1409
  24. R.W.Bemer, "Machine-controlled production environment",
    Report NATO Conf, on Stwe. Engg., Garmisch, 94-95, 1968 Oct 7-11
    First design document for a Software Factory.
  25. R.W.Bemer, "Checklist for planning software system production",
    Report NATO Conf. on Stwe. Engg., Garmisch, 165-180, 1968 Oct 7-11
  26. R.W.Bemer, "Program transfers need early planning", Computerworld, 1969 Feb 05
  27. R.W.Bemer, "A politico-social history of ALGOL", in
    Annual Review of Automatic Programming 5, Pergamon Press, 1969, 151-237
    -- Computing Reviews 18976
    First definitive history of ALGOL development.
  28. R.W.Bemer, "Program transferability",
    Proc. Spring Joint Computer Conf. 34, AFIPS Press, Montvale, NJ, 606-607, 1969
    -- Computer Abstracts 69-3162
  29. R.W.Bemer, "Escape to reality",
    Forum Editorial, Datamation 15, No. 8, 239-240, 1969 Aug
  30. R.W.Bemer, "Manageable software engineering", in
    Software Engineering 1, Proc. COINS III, Academic Press,
    New York, London, 1970, 121-138
    -- Computing Reviews 21123

Forward to Papers 61-122
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