29-11-2014  (3202 lectures) Categoria: Puignero

The lie of the Millenium

I want to warn you. Reading this document, it strives. I confess that I was the victim myself of bewilderment when I was exposed to what I am going to expose. And it's hard to believe, I assure you !. Yes, and I want to make it very clear from the beginning: each and every one of the tests, discoveries and historical demonstrations that I present here are the work of Jordi Bilbeny. My only intention with this document is to try to spread these ideas around the globe by drawing on my experience in new mega-broadcasting technologies such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, etc. In fact, the job I translate here is to have collected and ordered all the historical and scientific evidence that Bilbeny relates in his books about the falsification of the discovery of America. I've always liked to prove things (I'm an amateur scientist) and there is no better proof than one that fulfills a genuine English phrase that says, "A proof, should be as simple as possible, but not simpler."

I met Bilbeny two years ago, at the Catalan Summer University, in Prada de Conflent, and I must admit that the fact explained on his doctoral thesis surprised me. That same day I told myself that I would help him in the tiring task of spreading the true truth of this great lie that we have been believing for years and years. The new millennium must begin with a clean conscience and peace of mind. In fact, the pursuit of truth has always been one of the goals of mankind, and sooner or later the riddles and lies are unmasked. What Bilbeny has discovered is a bomb. Historically speaking, there is no other discovery that dismantles as many (false) theories as he does. And not only that, his study also has a second reading: the accusation against those who write History.

As the excerpt says: "History is written by the winners". And the centuries that preceded the discovery of America saw a Castile booming against a Catalan-Aragonese crown in complete decline. Therefore, it is easily deductible that History was written by the Castilians. One may think that the simplest thing to rewrite History would have been to remove all evidence from Discoveries. However, with this option, Castile history would be non existant.

There are surely a lot of historical lies to be unmasked, but thanks to Bilbeny, there are fewer.

Jordi Puigner贸 i Ferrer

Sant Cugat del Vall猫s, Octubre de 1999

The Lie of the Millenium.

Download PDF link: https://www.histo.cat/1/Lie_of_the_Millenium.pdf

Crist貌for Colom, Crist贸bal Col贸n or Christopher Columbus?


The Lie of the Millenium. Crist貌for Colom, Crist贸bal Col贸n
or Christopher Columbus?

A brief description of the Jordi Bilbeny鈥檚 book
Brev铆ssima Relaci贸 de la Destrucci贸 de la Hist貌ria. La Falsificaci贸 de
la Descoberta Catalana d鈥橝m猫rica
(Destruction of history. The fake of the catalan discovery of America)

The Lie of the Millenium. Crist貌for Colom, Crist贸bal Col贸n or Christopher Columbus?
鈥淭here are no third lines in the history of nations.
Wheter they are sovereign or dependent
and only sovereign countries people can assume the challenges of the future鈥
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{ Prologue
{ The false 鈥淏artolome de las Casas鈥 and his work
{ Quo Vadis Columbus
{ About Jaume Ferrer De Blanes, missing in combat
{ The great Mediterranean port of Palos de Moguer
{ The sailors invented at purpose
{ The Pinzon brothers
{ The andalusian sailors with Catalonian cap
{ Jewellery
{ The taking of possession. Another historical manipulation
{ Novelty titles and honours
{ How is it possible that the documents of an exclusively Castilian expedition are stored in the archive
of the Aragonese crown in Barcelona?
{ Castile. Paradise of gardening
{ The great Castilian Mediterranean Empire
{ Castile land of fish
{ Castilian history?
{ Not allowed to be Catalonian
{ The Toponymy
{ Numismatics
{ The Catalonian ill-spellings by the Admiral
{ Conclusion

I must warn you. The reading of this document is captivating, hard to believe at the beginning,
surprising and shocking.

This document is no other than the short translation to the "world wide web" of the investigations carried out
by Jordi Bilbeny over the last 18th years already exposed in his books.
What Bilbeny discovered is a bomb, historically speaking. There is no other discovery that dismantles so many false theories which have become certainties and fill nowadays our school books.

The truth always ends up emerging. What has been concealed by the official history cannot now
bear now more disregards. Despite the history is always made by the powerful the search of the
truth has always been in the very nature of man and sooner or later the enigmas and lies get
resolved and unmasked.

The evidence now revealed strikes twice. For the unearthing of the real circumstances of the
discovery of the New World still so misunderstood and for the incredible and appalling manipulation
of the historical facts by the authorities. It may be difficult for the outsider to understand the
reasons for such misconduct without understanding the politics of modern Spain as well as the
historic politics of what was then the Catalonian Kingdom of Aragon and the Castilian Kingdom of
The baroquely engineered false history and intended manipulation of all related data regarding
the discovery of America cannot be understood without understanding first the Castilian fanaticism
of the age. An age and a fanaticism that gave life to the Spanish Inquisition, the catholic
fundamentalism that in a degree still remain in such land today, the very much alive ethnic hatred
towards the Catalonian nation.

The Spanish authorities couldn鈥檛 burn definitively all books and evidence regarding such discovery
for the new arising Castile would have lost his borrowed glory. They could not reach the books
www.inh.catThe Lie of the Millenium. Crist貌for Colom, Crist贸bal Col贸n or Christopher Columbus?

written out of their borders or the copies sent abroad and it is thanks to that that nowadays we can
sum the evidence and reconstruct what really happened.
The silence of the official institutions when presented with the evidence point out an accusing
finger to those who in the past hided the truth as well as those who today try pointlessly to ignore
In this new millennium we shall start with a clear conscience and for the sake of knowledge make
the truth prevail upon the political usage of history.
www.inh.catThe Lie of the Millenium. Crist貌for Colom, Crist贸bal Col贸n or Christopher Columbus?

The false 鈥淏artolome de las Casas鈥 and his work
Since the beginning of the sixtieth century the history of bookmaking, book printing and its
distribution is closely related to the history of censorship. If fact, from this very age are known the
censorship laws which allowed the censor agents to revise any books to be printed and modify its
contents to oblige to the religious and political interests of the Spanish Crown. This was applied to
all books referred to the then recent discovery of America:
Royal bond 21st of September 1556 -> Remains prohibited the impression of any book about America
without the special license of the kingdom council. And therefore ordered the collection of any
existing one and severe punishment for any bookseller that may carry on selling them.
Royal bond 9th of October 1556 -> It is ordered to royal officials the requisition and identification of
all books arrived in ships not indexed in the Saint Inquisition indexes.
Curiously enough it is in those dates that the historian Bartolome de las Casas wrote his will. We
may easily observe the relation between the censorship laws being introduced and the precautions
undertaken by the writer.
It is just after each of the Royal bonds of 1556, 1558 and 1560 that Bartolome de las Casas takes
the first measures in protection of its work and four year after the 1560 Royal bond that indefinitely
postpones its 鈥淕eneral History of the Indies鈥. To be more precise, the November of 1559,
Bartolome de las Casas signed will letter for the future of its work.

Through that document he gave the manuscript of this book to a religious order and expressed his
will for the book not to be published until at least forty years later after his dead: 鈥淥nce those
forty years passed, in the event of convenience for the good of the Indians and of Spain, they can
order it to be printed for the glory of God and revealing of the truth鈥. Passed five years, on his
later will of the 17th of March 1564 insisted: 鈥淎nd therefore I gave in donation [my work] to the
Saint Gregorian College of all my Latin and romanc writings may them be found in the theme of the
Indians and the General History of the Indies which I also have written in romanc. It was my
intention that never leaved the college but for printing when God provided the time remaining the
originals in within the college which I ask and pray to the very Reverend and councillor fathers of
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the time. That they shall do for good. Upon which conscience I command them that in within the
college may they guard and protect鈥.

There is yet one more fact that Bartolome de las Casas decided to protect his work from censorship: The fact that only puts all his writings about the Indians in his General History of the Indies.

Yet the maybe most undeniable evidence is that like all the other censured writings, the General
History of the Indies remained completely unknown for some years and not at the abbey in which he
ordered it to be kept. We know that by the Royal bond of the 3rd of November 1571, after five
years of its dead, the original work was subtracted by Juan de Ovando of the abbey and moved to
Madrid under the custody of Juan Lopez de Velasco, the Indies Council censor. There remained
until 1597.

For the correspondence we have regarding Lopez de Velasco referring to his censorship activities
we know that he was a statesman upon which his country鈥檚 interest prevailed upon the convenience
of letting the truth be public. Is in that way, how Bartolome de las Casas, has being conserved in
royal ownership: serving the interest of the Castilian state upon the historical truth and against the
interests of the Kingdom of Aragon.

The clearest example of this censorship is the wide quantity of changes, added-ups and
contradictions we can find at the General History of the Indies, a recognised fact already mentioned
by the international historian community.
Another revealing fact I that the original work was hidden during centuries despite that from time
to time someone made reference upon it:
The historian and bibliography writer Antonio de Leon Pinelo in his book 鈥淓pitome of the Oriental
and Occidental Library鈥 (published in Madrid 1629) says he saw the work in two volumes at the
Simancas archive, where he went on 1626 to examine the General History of the Indies of Bartolome
de las Cases by the command of the Indies Council. He also tells us that those volumes corresponded
to 1492 and 1552. And therefore he mentions another two existing copies. Those volumes though one
in the Villa-Umbrosa Count library and the other at Jacob Krisius in Amsterdam.
In the same way, in 鈥淢emory of Antonio Herrera and the books and papers of Casas who where
taken from San Gregory College in Valladolid and are in possession of Juan Lopez de Velasco鈥 it is
said that the works where composed of three volumes and the first had 624 pages. But in fact the first
conserved volume according to Lewis Hanke had only 496 pages.
The Lie of the Millenium. Crist貌for Colom, Crist贸bal Col贸n or Christopher Columbus?

Another aspect of evidence again from censorship sources and its political intention, it is revealed
when analysing the pretended autograph preface by Columbus of the 鈥淥n board diary鈥. From this
letter, we have an extract that Bartolome de las Casas publishes in the first volume of the General
History of the Indies (pages 47 and 48), and an oddly complete incorporated text to the codex of
the 鈥淭he prophecies book鈥.

Now, in the original (modified) text by Bartolome de las Casas of the General History of the Indies
which is in Madrid鈥檚 National Library at the text from the preface letter one can see scrawls,
modifications and other proofs that what one鈥檚 reading is not a transcription.

The fact that is being incorporated to the codex allows us at least to be suspicious about a fraud
case. Numerous historians have already noticed that like Gallardo in his 鈥淓ssay of a library鈥 and in
fact it can be checked that not only is something added afterwards but also unrelated. Let鈥檚 take a
look at the following examples:
The letter which is taken off the book鈥檚 content starts at the 4th front and longs until the 6th front.
Of those pages, the ones which carry the 4 number are part of the bunch of paper but not the 5th,
which seems glued. The number 6 finally are even with 4.
{ The handwriting is the same from the 4th to the 5th pages but different from the 6th on.
{ The paper of the added page, is completely different from the one in which has been inserted.
Looking closely we can see that they have nothing in common.
{ The handwriting of the added page doesn鈥檛 appear again in the codex.
{ The letter presents blanks, added text and signs of manipulation which is clearly suspicious.

The conclusion is that 鈥淭he prophecies book鈥 was modified so it matched with the preface-letter
of the General History of the Indies not to say that from the General History of the Indies itself
didn鈥檛 last match of the original once the abuse of the 鈥淭he prophecies book鈥 was done.
If Columbus is the most important character in America鈥檚 discovery, there is another character
whose importance is even or more due to the very valuable literary legacy which has been crucial
to the discovery鈥檚 understanding. This character is Bartolome de las Casas and no else. According
the official Columbine Spanish historiography he was a missionary friar, born in Andalusia albeit
there is not a single document proving his andalusian nature.

As it will be demonstrated following this was the Catalonian friar Bartomeu Casaus.

If we analyse the copies of the official texts lost in that age that speak about the American
discovery we will see that the character is called Bartolome de las Casas but we also will see that
almost all copies where published in Castile. Knowing the certainty of censorship we cannot trust
those sources faithfully. In fact a Latin translation of the 鈥淏rief Tale of the Indies destruction鈥
published in Frankfurt on the 1598 has Bartolomaeum Casaum as author.
We can also state thanks to Girolami Banzoni in the 鈥淗istory of the New World鈥 that the father
of the friar was called 鈥淐asaos鈥. Yet a more clear prove is the signature of that character when on
1543 was appointed Bishop of Chiapas until 1550.

We cannot at that point avoid considering the bishop one of many Catalonians un-nationalized in
profit of Castile.
(Note to the reader: Once proved the nature of the character, the character will be called henceforth by his
real name: Bartomeu Casaus)

Quo Vadis Columbus
Are the contradictions in the preface-letter an accidental finding? Are they affecting only this part
of the text? Or rather spread all throughout the book as an unavoidable and indelible fact by the
censorship agents to manipulate the facts and change the sense of the history? In the following
examples we can explore it clearly:

In General History of the Indies is being told both of the discovery of the new lands and about
going to Asian India, part which has been openly modified.

We also find contradictions in the fact of Cuba being an isle or terra firma. The vision that Casaus
gives about what Columbus believed Cuba was is totally contradictory, not only throughout the
General History of the Indies but also with the Admiral鈥檚 word in the 鈥渓etter鈥 with which he
announced the discovery where is clearly stated that Cuba was an isle.

All posterior fakes used by the censors to give evidence that Cuba was terra firma, or Japan, and
that that terra firma was Asia should be understood as a very astute political game. Why? Because if
Columbus didn鈥檛 discover neither land nor isles by his will and labour but by chance and not
knowing where he was going and confusing all he saw with other geographical places as found
written in the 鈥淐apitulations鈥 book, the Crown would cancel the contract and expropriate the land
and profits gained and the novelty titles given.

As known, the Colom (Columbus) where finally expropriated which is even more clear the extreme
importance of this character in Casaus history.

About Jaume Ferrer De Blanes, missing in combat
A very related issue with the Discovery of America is the correspondence between Columbus and a
famous cosmographer of the age who according to some sources would be one of the main cause
that would throw Columbus to the quest for the new world. Well, as Casaus says in his books, this
cosmographer was called Paulo. A Florentine physician identified lately by the columbine critic as
Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli.

Altolaguirre in his 鈥淐ristobal Columbus and Pablo del Pozzo Toscanelli鈥 demonstrated that the
correspondence that includes Ferran Colom, son of the discoverer in 鈥淭he history of the Admiral鈥
was an invention for there was a bunch of incongruences (repetitions and common places) and
inexact data not according to the mentioned facts.

For instance, in one of those letters of 1474 Toscanelli says that 鈥渁t the end of the path the great
province of Catai should be found, official residence of the Great Khan. The one of Mangi and the
beautiful city of Quinsai鈥.

This fact wouldn鈥檛 have any importance at all if it wasn鈥檛 because all those denominations belong
to China鈥檚 Mongol dominion founded by Genghis Khan the 1206 and ended the 1369 so either
manipulation of the text has occurred or Toscanelli wasn鈥檛 what one can say a 鈥榖rilliant鈥 geographer
because in 1474, when this letter was written China wasn鈥檛 ruled by the Great Khan any more and
the country wasn鈥檛 called Catai, the province of Mangi didn鈥檛 exist and Cambelec, Zaiton and
Quinsai cities had other names.

Another fact that makes Toscanelli鈥檚 existence dubious is the fact that an historian called
Herrera, in one of his latest studies about Casaus and specially in the chapter that refers to by
whom was Columbus induced to the quest for the New World there is no reference to Toscanelli at
all. According to Herrera, the man that induced Columbus to the discovery was no one else than
Martin of Bohemia.

As we know how the censorship agents behaved cutting and adding its easier to believe that the
truth is that those who manipulated Herrera鈥檚 and Ferran Colom鈥檚 books, did it based on an original
missing today and containing a different name than the legated. Which one then?

All we know is that the writer was a friend of Colom and that he should have known a lot of
cosmography. It happens that the unique letter sent to Columbus by a cosmographer which critics
haven鈥檛 yet turned down for not being original is Jaume Ferrer de Blanes鈥 one. This letter once
again is the translation of an now lost original one in Catalonian tongue for there is no lack of
references showing the origin like phrases like 鈥渢his our Spain鈥 or the sharing of the same monarchs
in 鈥淥ur common lords鈥.

Also it should be taken into account the letter to the kings sent the 27th of January 1494 in which
was written 鈥淚 will always refer to those who know more than myself like the Admiral of the Indies
who at tempore existente knows about this issues like no one else鈥 which proves the friendship
between both characters.

The fact that Ferrer was a top cosmographer of its time is being testimony by plenty of historians
like Roselly de Lorgues and so is explained his involvement in the partition of the Atlantic Ocean
between Spain and Portugal once legalized the discovery of the new lands. In fact, Ferrer creates
the first world map including America which would be sent to the kings at 1495.

Being Ferrer who orientates, gives counsel and induces Columbus to the New World discovery it is
not hard to imagine that he was a Catalonian himself. So Columbus was a Catalonian and Ferrer was
a Catalonian. They are the one who organises the expedition and succeeds and the one that
supervises the details and set the limits between Spain and Portugal. That discredits the traditional
Spanish teachings 鈥渇or Castile and Leon was America discovered by Colon鈥.

The facts since now dismantle the prejudice that America鈥檚 discovery was reserved to Castile. Why
should Ferdinand the 15th of August 1494 write to his deputies on Catalonia, Majorca and to the
viceroy of Sicily all belonging to the kingdom of Aragon asking them for the search of sailors,
cosmographers and expert astrologers to give their opinion about the Atlantic division then?
To close the chapter then we can conclude that the cosmographer that was intentionally erased
form Casaus, Ferran Colom and Herrera鈥檚 books couldn鈥檛 be no other that Jaume Ferrer de Blanes
and that was intentionally erased because of his Catalonian condition, because his old and
compromising relation with the different states of the Aragon Kingdom and because of his proved
and old friendship with the Admiral.

The great Mediterranean port of Palos de Moguer
Casaus compiles Columbus words in

鈥淚 came to the village of Palos sea
port where I loaded three vessels
very adequate to the purpose and
leaved the port provided with very
suppliers and sea people鈥 but in
another says 鈥渉e left the river called
Saltes, for it is called like that the
river of Palos鈥. Saltes was yet then
and since two centuries before an
inhabited island. Plus that 鈥渞iver in
Palos鈥 that Casaus mentions has
never before mentioned.
Otherwise, there are a great
number of chroniclers of the age
that record Columbus leaving land
neither from Palos nor Saltes but
from Cadis (see picture on the left).
This wide range of choices is yet
again showing that the censors
shaded the name of the original port
and that they where more worried
of making it disappear than
synchronising the invented
substitute port.

Pals General History of the Castilian quests cover. 1) where it is clearly
seen that the official Palos is Pals de l鈥橢mporda

The historian Bilbeny has demonstrated that Columbus didn鈥檛 leave from Palos but from Pals de
l鈥橢mporda instead. The documents speak about a military fortress in Palos but there was never one
there. Nor there is any archaeological remaining evidence today. Pals de l鈥橢mporda though still
conserves today all traces of a fortified medieval town. Sometimes a picture is worth more than
Another evidence is the fact that other chroniclers like Piri Reis (1513) and Alfonso Garcia de
Matamoros (鈥淒e Academia et Doctis Viris Hispaniae鈥, 1553) tell us that the first expedition of the
discovery 鈥 ... in reaching the Strait of Ceuta and having sailed four thousand miles鈥. There is
clearly not 4000 miles from Palos de Moguer to the Strait of Gibraltar. There is about 4000 miles
from Pals de l鈥橢mporda to the Strait of Ceuta though.

Also if you ever have been in Palos de Moguer you will see with your eyes that the supposed river
from where the three vessels leaved land doesn鈥檛 exceed what you can call a torrent.
Yet more evidence is that is being told that from Palos de Moguer is from where Columbus
returned to Barcelona to be received by the kings. Numerous historians compiled the fact that
Columbus went from the landing point to Barcelona walking. That he did in three days because the
kings gave him the order dated the 30th of March and he arrived the 3rd of April. This makes sense
with the receiving that the Catholic Kings gave to Columbus in Saint Jeronimus of the Mutra鈥檚
monastery in Barcelona. Should have been true that he came from Palos rather than Pals de
l鈥橢mporda he must have done an average of 14 Km hour.

It was at the Mas Sunyol, a house close to the monastery where according to the chroniclers he
was allocated and slept. In 1990 the historian Francesc Albardane, stealing from the Notary archive
from Barcelona, found a document in which was written that this house belonged to the Colom
family in Barcelona. The discoverer slept at his home.

The sailors invented at purpose
With the sailors the pattern in consistent: their names disappear, and are being substituted
afterwards by Spaniard sailors who either went to America far later or never went at all because
where the result of the censors imagination.
Despite Casaus says that they where all from Palos Roselly de Lorgues has demonstrated that none
of the crew of the Santa Maria where from Palos.
There is a clear fact though: the fact that the text 鈥淟ist of the people who went with Columbus in
his first voyage鈥 is a copy of 1498, that is not signed by the Admiral, that there is a missing page,
that only forty of the hundred and twenty original sailors are in it and that only ten of them are
mentioned previously by other sources induces at least at being suspicious.
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The Pinzon brothers
According to Casaus book, the Pinzon brothers (Alfonso, Fernando, Vicente Yanez Pinzon) lived in
By Casaus also we know that Alfonso Pinzon had been in Rome at Inocnecius the VIII pope鈥檚 library.
That he had been in Rome is known also by several witnesses.
It鈥檚 curious though because the Royal attorney and the Generalitat鈥檚 loyal ambassador in Rome at
that age was Alfons Anes Pincon.
It is also known that Columbus organized the first voyage with Fernando Yanez Pinzon.
It happens that the deputy of the Generalitat鈥檚 royal treasure of the age was Ferran Anes Pincon.
And yet another coincidence is that in the uprising of the Generalitat against John II it is recorded
the name of a knight called Vicens Anes Pincon from Pals de l鈥橢mporda.
There is no registry that the three brothers with the same where born in Palos and all induces to
think that the names as well as the name of the town itself was indiscriminately translated.
The fallacious of a certain Columbus that coming from Portugal would find Rabida and by
predestination with the Pincon brothers in Palos de Moguer is absolutely discredited by Juan de
Castilla in 鈥淓legies of the gentlemen of Indies鈥 where is proved that Columbus wrote to the
Pincon brothers explaining them his project before going to find them telling them that 鈥渇or being
experienced sailors he sent his letters far before鈥 which explains the previous friendship that can
only come from the age when they fought together against John the II.
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Fragment of a letter from the councils of Barcelona to the prince Ferran on 1479 where he is told that
between the attackers to Barcelona鈥檚 port is Vicens Anes Pincon from Pals
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The andalusian sailors with Catalonian cap
Another proof that the original sailors where Catalonian rather than
andalusian or from extremadura or castile is the what they ware which was
distinctively Catalonian.
For starters Juan de la Cosa born in Santander according to the traditional
historiography although no document gives it credit is oddly painted with
the typical Catalonian hat as conserved at Madrid鈥檚 National Museum.
Obviously the use of the Barretina (Catalonian hat) could have not been
taken neither from Santander nor Andalusia if there where the places where
the Armada was being prepared.
Map of the geographical area of the Barretina
amidst Romanic peoples which does not
include Andalusia, Castile or Cantabria
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Catalan man dressed as a traditional trabucaire, Young boys dressed in the Catalan
dressed with a faixa (red scarf around the stomatch) traditional (folk) masculine dress: faixa,
and a barretina, in a folkstreet party barretina i espardenyes de set vetes (the
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Below is the map of the geographical area where the Barretina was used by Romanic peoples which
does not include neither Extremadura nor Castile nor Andalusia or any of the Biscay golf peoples.
The use of the Barretina had been a characteristic between the Catalonian sailors and army
although having less tradition upon the latest.
It happens that in Catalonia there is reported and documentation about a sailor called Joan de la
Cossa who was one of the major military characters of the Generalitat in the uprising against John
II. He was governor of Provence and was in the Emporda with his brother Gaspar count of Troy and
Great Senescal of Provence.
Rey Pastor and Garcia Camarero鈥檚 book 鈥淭he Majorcan cartography鈥 we can find that the
cartographic school of Seville 鈥渨as burned by Don Juan de la Cosa which was the remote successor
of the cartographic school of Majorca鈥. It is far more faceable that this Majorcan influence had
come from being from somewhere near Majorca. Like Catalonia.
Zuloaga also painted Juan Sebastian Elcano with Barretina which induces to believe that this
great sailor defined traditionally as Basque was probably Catalonian too.
If we look closer to the signature probably modified of Juan Sebastian Elcano we can observe that
is written 鈥渄el Canos鈥 rather than Elcano.
It happens to be and being documented in the Catalonia of that age Joan Cacirea del Canos
father of the lord of Montcortes, Clariana, el Canos and la Goda (in the Segarra shire). We also
know by world atlas of 1545 that there was an isle called JoanCanos which seems a bit too much of
a coincidence.
Also Theodor De Bry in his book 鈥淎mericae鈥 dated the 1559 shows the first sailors who arrived to
America with Columbus and they are clearly wearing the Catalonian hat Barretina.
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First sailors at the New World with 鈥渟aravells鈥 and Barretina according to the book 鈥淎mericae鈥 by Theodor De
Bry. 1559
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Theodor de Bry engraving " Making a Ship in the New World ". From a series which illustrated early events in
the contact between Europeans and Native Americans based on Girolamo Benzoni's history of the Spanish in the
New World. Look at the hats of the men planting seeds.
We can also see the censors hand in this issue looking at several books we can see that the word
Barretina has been translated by 鈥渞ed cap鈥 or 鈥淏ordeaux cap鈥 and other colours which shows an
exceeding variety of opinions which can only be because of a poor manipulation.
In the 鈥渇irst relation鈥 from Hernan Cortes we find that arriving at Saint John鈥檚 isle the Mexican
conquistador uses the barretina hat as a friendship sign to the indigenous chiefs. In the 鈥渇irst
relation鈥 he says 鈥渢o make the Indians trust him, Cortes gave them two shirts... several red hats and
several couple of zaraveles and with those wares did they go to the chiefs鈥. Cortes鈥檚 description is
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very interesting because apart from giving them some barretina hats makes clear that he gave them
鈥渮araveles鈥 which is the translation to Spanish of the Catalonian 鈥渟aravells鈥 which are a wide
trousers used by a lot of south Catalonians and the Valencian country also from the kingdom of
When De Bry publishes pictures about sailors with the barretina hat, drying their ropes near the
fire he also paints them with 鈥渟aravells鈥 trousers which reinforces the fact that the first discoverers
where Catalonians.
The same happens with Bernal Diaz del Castillo鈥檚 tale 鈥淭rue History of the Conquest of New
Spain鈥, in which explains that to please some chefs Cortes bring 鈥渁 red hat with a gold medal鈥.
What is now clear is that this hat was a barretina hat and the fact that the medal was a Saint
George in horse killing a dragon is a clear sign for Saint George is the patron saint of Catalonia and
It is clear then after all that evidence that the sailors that went with Columbus in the first voyage
and established themselves in Cuba and then went to Mexico with Cortes did also wear hats.
We will also refer to what the discoverer said in his 鈥淥n board diary鈥 the 11th of October
speaking about the moment in which the crew descended to land and took possession of the New
World. We read 鈥淚. To make them have us in friendship and because I knew they would be people
that would better convert to our saint faith by love rather than force gave to some of them
beautiful red hats鈥. The same happens when a native that came with canoe from Saint Salvador鈥檚
island was taken by sailors and boarded into the ship. Columbus said to them 鈥淎nd he was in to the
front of the ship being all seen by myself sent him to be brought to me and gave him a red hat鈥.
It seems that the red hats didn鈥檛 please to the copiers for in the Spanish version of Ferran Colom鈥檚
book, when he describes the 15th passage the text doesn鈥檛 say the discoverer gave to the native a
red hat but only says 鈥渟ome things鈥. Instead the Italian version of the paragraph of the 11th day
says that Columbus gave them 鈥渁 red hat鈥.
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The mythology of the traditional teachings about Isabel of Castile lending her jewellery to finance
the expedition was already turned down by Francisco Martinez Martinez in 鈥淭he discovery of
America and the jewellery of the queen Isabel鈥. Quoting the author 鈥...the fake modern histories
shadow interesting circumstances, inventing a patriotic and poetic legend but totally false at the
same time鈥.
Neither did the very excellent queen lend nor sell her jewellery for she didn鈥檛 have possession of
them by being in Valencia.
No serious historian today gives credit to the tale but the consequences remaining that induce to
people to think that the organization of the company was done in Castile because Isabel was her
queen rather than the truth which is that was a project born and linked with the Aragonese-
Catalonian crown who carries it forth and appropriates it being excluded afterwards of the profits
of it.
How would be possible for Castile to finance an expedition and allow all the preparations and the
taking off being done in Catalonia as already demonstrated?
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The taking of possession. Another historical manipulation
It has always been said that the discovery of America was a Castilian enterprise. If Columbus would
have taken possession for Castile or in its name the chronicles would describe the quartered flag
with castles and lions of Castile and Leon in the land taking. Even the adulterated history we
inherited does not state that.
In Ferran Colom鈥檚 鈥淗istory of the Admiral鈥 says 鈥淭he admiral took land with the armed boat and
the royal flag鈥. The same was done by the other vessels (Alfons lanyes and Vicenc lanyes), who took
land with their boats and the enterprise flags which was a green cross with an F in a side and
crowns at the other in memory of Isabel and Fernando.
In the same way, Casaus in the 鈥淕eneral History of the Indies鈥 says 鈥淭he Admiral took the royal
flag and the two captains the flags of the green cross that the admiral carried in all his ships as a
It seems then that there where two kind of flags: the royal and the enterprise鈥檚 one.
About the royal flag it鈥檚 curious because in both cases is being spoken about one royal flag but
which one? Castile鈥檚 or the Aragonese-Catalonian crown? If it was Castile鈥檚 is sure that the censors
would have specified so or wouldn鈥檛 have eliminated the adjective.
Is because of that that we are entitled to think that the kingdom who owned the flag (the
Aragonese-Catalonian crown) had been eliminated of both texts as we will demonstrate now.
The disappearing flags are common in the pictures of the age. In the first edition of 鈥淎mericae鈥
(1559) by Theodor de Bry the three vessels have Catalonian flags while in posterior published
editions those Catalonian flags are now shadowed and even one of them have clearly remade the
Castile-Leon arms.
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In Lopez de Gomara鈥檚 鈥淕eneral History of the Indies and the conquest of Mexico鈥 we can read
鈥...said that the Pope in Rome (Alexander VI), representative of Christ in earth with absolute power
upon souls and religion had given those lands [the Indies] to the very powerful king of Castile his
lord鈥 which is false proving the bad skill of the censor because Alexander VI as Catalonian was only
serve of one king. The Aragonese-Catalonian king.
About the cross flag: in 鈥淗istorical News of the conquest of Terra Firma鈥, Pedro Simon says
鈥淭hey jumped to the ground with the royal flag wide opened which was the one given for the
enterprise with a green cross鈥. The flag of Castile is never mentioned. The only repeatedly
mentioned is the cross flag. Curiously enough one of the most used Catalonian flags used by the
royal Catalonian army in at the age was Saint George鈥檚 flag as demonstrated in a letter by Pere el
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Cerimonios to his brother Ferran the 6th of February 1359 in which we can read 鈥...we have ordered
that all cavalry squadrons on battle day shall be signed by Saint George鈥檚 flag. And we order and ask
you to do throughout you all the said sign which shall be white with the red cross鈥.
The cross of Saint George is then in the Catalonian wars.
We should remind at that point that the official books are manipulated when they say that
Columbus鈥檚 enterprise flag was green. The very odd thing is that the green cross doesn鈥檛 have any
national sense; it doesn鈥檛 belong to any king, nor does it to any army of the Iberian peninsula.
The historian Gerard Garrigue in his book 鈥淐histope Colomb. Les cles de l鈥檈nigme鈥: 鈥淭he green
colour is a mystery because is a seldom colour for a cross. There is only one religious order who
adopted a green cross. That was the Saint Lazarus order in Jerusalem鈥. It is neither a national nor
royal sign then. Not being able to find an answer to the mystery says 鈥渨e ignore why Columbus
adopts such a singular sign鈥. It has a clear answer though. Because the cross was not green but red.
The censorship changed the name of the colours substituting the red by the green trying to erase
the political significance of the flag.
To remove any doubt about the red colour of the flag and thanks to the poor skill of the censors
and the difficulty to control all texts related to the discovery of America there are remaining texts
with the original colour as in 鈥淩elation of the things of Yucatan鈥 by Diego de Landa where we can
read 鈥...arriving Cortes to New Spain he started colonising and the called the first town Vera-Cruz
according to his flag the red cross of Saint George鈥.
The fact that there has been manipulation about the colours is being demonstrated by the
diversity of colours with which is called the flag of Catalonia. For some chronics as the Franciscan
Montoliu the Cortes鈥檚 flag had 鈥渁 red cross upon black鈥. For Dorantes de Zalazar the cross 鈥渨as
black upon yellow鈥. For Cervantes de Zalazar the flag 鈥渨as black upon blue and white鈥. Probably
each censor used the colour of his favourite football club.
As the pictures we can see in the 鈥淟etter鈥 by Columbus published by Jacobb Wolff in Brasilia
show how at the ship of the second page a Catalonian flag.
The same happen in the cover of the 鈥淟etter鈥 by Columbus published in Brasilia by Johannes
Bergmann d鈥橭lpe. A ship appears again at the second page with the Catalonian flag. The same flag
that Columbus鈥檚 men carry in the taking of terra firma and again in the fight against the rebels
leaded by Porres. All recorded in the 鈥淎mericae鈥 by Theodor de Bry in 1559.
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The troops of Columbus in combat with the Catalonian flag according to 鈥淎mericae鈥 by Theodor de
Bry in 1559
Theodor de Bry's New World Discoveries Map Americae (1528-1597)
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Using only the copies of the 鈥淟etter鈥 published in Castile the Catalonian flag does not appear
anywhere and when it does appear is because of the lack of skill by the censor.
There are pictures though in which Saint George鈥檚 and the Catalonian flag appear in Columbus ship
regarding the discovery of America. The first is in the National Library in Paris from 1494 to
illustrate the arrival to the Indies. The importance of this picture is enormous because it will also
be in the cover of the 鈥淏ook of the sea consulate鈥 when published in Barcelona in 1502. The
second picture is Columbus ship in 鈥淧ortuguese letter of the Indian Ocean鈥 dated by Martinez-
Hidalgo about 1510. Saint George鈥檚 cross is in the main mast and the Catalonian flag is clearly
visible in the vessel鈥檚 castle. Finally in a Portuguese map by 1590 again appear Catalonian flags as
possession of the new continental dominions.
There are plenty of those proofs discrediting the traditional Castilian Historiography which for long
years attempted to consider unrelated the Aragonese-Catalonian crown with the discovery of
Note added for this paper in English. To see the actual aspect of the Senyera -name of the Catalan flag- and
its history you can go to:
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Novelty titles and honours
Clearly showing the true nature of the new world鈥檚 taking of possession is the political titles asked
by Columbus in the 鈥淐apitulations book鈥 in the new possessions to be. He asked for the titles of
Admiral of the Oceanic sea and Viceroy of and principal governor.
All those titles where characteristics of Catalonia and only the Aragonese-Catalonian crown could
have given them. It cannot be acceptable from an historic point of view to consider any viceroy in
the XV century鈥檚 Castile. Therefore the American viceroy-led governments which where the main
structure of the Spanish administrative government at the Indies of almost three centuries inherited
the that structure from the previous institutions in Catalonia, Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia,
Naples and Sicily all belonging to the Aragonese-Catalonian crown.
There are also coincidences between the language used at the viceroy, deputies, and governor鈥檚
appointment clauses in the new world and those used for the same purpose in the Mediterranean
Comparing the 鈥渃apitulations鈥 in the Archives of the Aragonese crown in Barcelona with another
similar document in Simancas and Indies archives we can once again observe the influence of the
The first difference we observe is that while the Catalonian archive is according to the
prescriptions of the chancellery of the Aragonese crown the ones in the Castilian chancellery are
according to the prescriptions of the Castilian chancellery not having bothered to delete the name
of the secretary Coloma who signs the 鈥淐apitulations鈥 stored in Barcelona.
There are other changes at the Castilian side though. The omission the 鈥淕eneral鈥 title referring to
the Governor (which affiliates it to the Aragonese crown), the elimination of the phrase 鈥渋n
satisfaction of what has been discovered鈥 because this phrase gives evidence of a pre-discovery. It
has also been systematically changed the kingdoms which the Catholic Kings possessed erasing all
Catalonian involvement.
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The evidence is fundamental regarding the differences between both archives as is the nature of
the titles Columbus asked for.
The influence and involvement of Catalonia to the judicial organization of America is even more
specific taking into account that in the orders of 29 of May 1493 it is specified that Columbus would
be able to appoint judges 鈥渁s they do other viceroys and governors of their highnesses鈥. But 鈥淭heir
highnesses鈥 are obviously as kings of the Aragonese-Catalonian crown because those titles never
existed in Castile.
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How is it possible that the documents of an exclusively Castilian
expedition are stored in the archive of the Aragonese crown in
The traditional Spanish historiography says that the 17th of April 1492 the 鈥淐apitulations鈥 between
Columbus and the Catholic Kings for the discovery of the new world where signed in Santa Fe. Is a
contract between two parts for which Columbus asks for certain government titles and economic
privilege in exchange of the findings of new and yet unknown lands and to put them under
sovereignty of the Crown.
As we already know the censors acted we see in no wonder that the originals have already
disappeared. We will though analyse step by step what the Spanish history says.
First: the documents are said to be signed in Santa Fe but at that time Santa Fe in Granada where
only a tent camp. Not a town.
Second: the Catholic Kings didn鈥檛 sign themselves those 鈥淐apitulations鈥 but instead was done by
Joan Coloma which was the royal secretary of the Aragonese Kingdom. This makes clearer that the
fact that Columbus leaved land form Catalonia as already being demonstrated previously. I would
be rather odd to think that Mr Joan Coloma from Catalonia and Columbus would travel to Andalusia
to sign themselves those documents just to return home afterwards.
There is yet more evidence though because if the 鈥淐apitulations鈥 where entirely Castilian
documents then they would have been prepared, stamped and registered by civil servants of the
Castilian chancellorship and being conserved as the remaining documents regarding the issue in the
Castilian archives.
It was not. Instead the document was registered in the archives of the Aragonese crown.
As in all documentation that has disappeared the most ancient document is in the 3569th book in
the 鈥淒iversorum sigulli secreti鈥 section in Simancas archive.
Yet more evidence that the document was concerning the Aragonese crown is the fact that even
the Concorde of 1475 for the union of both Hispanic crowns didn鈥檛 allow the royal colitigant to use
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civil servants from the Aragonese-Catalonian crown to sign documents of high importance in
Castilian politics. In our case not only they where signed by a Catalonian civil servant but also
stored in Catalonia.
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Castile. Paradise of gardening
It is not bizarre at that point in time once seen the way the censors automatically excluded
Catalonia and Aragon from the American discovery to understand that all references written by
Casaus in the 鈥淕eneral History of the Indies鈥 of those names where replaced by Castile or Spain.
It would have been difficult to see if the changes made by the censors wouldn鈥檛 be so far from
reality and strange. In Casaus book we can find statements like:
{ <>
{ <<...there are gardens, the more famous of the world and almost even to those of Castile>>
{ <<...and is all settled and harvested and as green as Castile on may or June...>>
{ <<...the sweet and pleasant winds all through the night. Neither cold nor hot like Castile on May...>>
By all those descriptions Castile looks like a Mediterranean country rather than one with
continental clime as it is. The references to the harvested gardens lead us to Valencia and
Barcelona for is there where they where famous.
Yet to give more evidence we can quote the description of the Barcelona and Valencia of 1494 by
the German writer Munzer which would point out the plain clear manipulation in Casaus鈥檚 book.
Munzer says of Barcelona: 鈥淔rom Saint Anthony鈥檚 door to occident is full of gardens and tree
plantations such as lemon-trees, palm trees, pines and vineyards. The land is fruitful and plentiful鈥.
Of Valencia says: 鈥淲e where taken to see the gardens of the city, which are excellently planted of
lemon-treed, orange-trees, etc鈥.
We can find plenty of those examples giving evidence of the attempt of the censors to un-relate
Catalonia with the discovery of America.
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The great Castilian Mediterranean Empire
The lack of skill by the censors whilst manipulating the books relating to the discovery of America is
again evident in Casaus鈥檚 book 鈥淥f the beauty of the lands they saw referred and exceeded all isles
of Castile in fruitfulness, beautifulness and goodness鈥 Which where all those islands of Castile? It is
obvious the continuous replacements of the word 鈥淐atalonia鈥 by 鈥淐astile鈥 because the islands
being talked about are no other than Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza, Sardinia, Sicily, Formentera and
Even that there is yet some Spanish historians that assured that the isles referred by Casaus where
the Canary Islands without taking in account that in the year in which Columbus makes the
description Castile was still fighting for the Canary Islands. Pretending an imperial Castile ruler of
the waves with dominions around the world on the XV century is a pretension ridiculous and very
sad indeed.
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Castile land of fish
The falsehood reaches ridiculous proportions when spoken about Castile as a fishing country and
rich in fish.
The proofs of the name replacing are evident in the names used to describe the fish found in
Casaus鈥檚 narrative.
First the 鈥減ijota鈥. 鈥減ijota鈥 in Spanish means the baby 鈥渕erluza鈥, 鈥減escadilla鈥. Well the Spanish
鈥減escadilla鈥 has noting to do with the long and slim fish described by Columbus for the Italian name
given by his son Ferran Colom in the 鈥淗istory of the Admiral鈥 in no other than 鈥渓achie鈥. 鈥渓achi鈥
meaning bow or strings. Those really make sense with the Catalonian 鈥減ixota鈥 which have a long
and compressed body. The 鈥減ixota鈥 is the common name for several eel-like fish as the white
鈥減ixota鈥, the red 鈥減ixota鈥 and the 鈥減ixota de llanguet鈥 or 鈥減ixota de carall de jan鈥.
The second fish is called 鈥減ompano鈥 by Casaus and 鈥減ampani鈥 by Ferran Colom in the Italian
version. As the name is totally inexistent in Spanish the correct translation of the Catalonian
鈥減ampol鈥 which according to the family would have to have been translated as 鈥渞omero鈥, 鈥渃herna鈥
or 鈥減iloto鈥. Is evident that the translator confused 鈥減ompano鈥 with a tree leaf.
There are plenty of examples and not only about fish. The names of the birds have also been
translated from Catalonian to Spanish without making any sense al tall. The famous 鈥渞abo de
junco鈥, which does not exist in Spanish as a bird鈥檚 name and which Casaus records and Ferran
Colom mentions continuously is no other than the Catalonian 鈥渃ua de jonc鈥, a very common bird in
the albufera of Valencia.
Looking at the descriptions made by Casaus and Columbus we can clearly see that the Spanish
translation would have been 鈥減ato rabudo鈥.
Nevertheless there is still in the Antilles an island called Montserrat where a yellow and black bird
is called 鈥渙riol鈥 by the local people. According to the island inhabitants this bird was named by the
discoverer because it looked like one of his land. It is no other than the known Catalonian bird
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Castilian history?
If Castile pretended to have all the new lands by it鈥檚 own even if it where only a literary possession
it was necessary for this desire to adequate to the reality but because the reality not only was
inexact to the history but also frontally opposed the censors decided to change the reality.
In that fashion, the 鈥淥n board diary鈥 by Columbus in which he narrated precisely, exactly, day
and night all the facts happening in the first voyage of the discovery was the objective of the
censorship machinery. For this reason is not conserved nowadays any of the original scripts of the
admiral that make reference at their voyages in America. Not even the first copies made at the
moment. Anyway we have inherited a fairly exact copy of the facts happened in the first voyage of
the discovery. It was thanks to father Casaus that included in his 鈥淕eneral History of the Indies鈥
the original quotations by Columbus although mutilated and confused.
The fact that manipulation censorship happened is widely accepted by the historians and there is
plenty of examples.
This is a brief resume of a comparative study of the 鈥淕eneral History of the Indies鈥 by Casaus
(the copy conserved in the National Library in Madrid) with the 鈥淗istory of the Admiral鈥 by Ferran
Colom and with a resumed copy of the 鈥淥n-board diary鈥 (also in the National Library in Madrid).
Those three books where made following the same original by Columbus disappeared nowadays.
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Monday, 12 of November
History of the Indies: Thought
the admiral that he should bring
from this Cuban island or terra
firma as he already suspected
some Indians to Castile for them
to learn the language of Castile.
On-board diary: Hi thought good
to take some people from that
river to the kings se they could
learn our language.
History of the Admiral: He
commanded them to take some
inhabitant from that isle for he
had the purpose to take one
from each part to Castile so he
could give account of the
matters of his land.
Thursday, 6th of December:
History of the Indies: All that
land seemed very high, of small
trees like the ones in Castile,
like the coscoll tree and the
On-board diary: All that island
seemed more mountain-full like
no other found: the trees where
smaller and a lot of them of the
nature of Spain like the coscoll
tree and the Cyclamini-
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Quercetum and others.
History of the admiral: But the land have little mountains and the trees are smaller. Similar of
those of Castile amidst those there was oaks, arboc tree and murtra trees.
Monday, 10th of December
History of the Indies: They fished a lot of the fishes in Castile: albor fish, roger fish, pixotes, gall
fish, salpes fish, llisses fish, corbines fish, gambetes fish and European pilchards.
On-board diary: They saw a lot of fish from Castile, albor fish, roger fish, pixotes, gall fish, salpes
fish, llisses fish, corbines fish, gambetes fish and also saw European pilchards.
History of the admiral: Seeing that the island of Bohio was so big. That the lands and their trees
seemed at those of Spain and that in an occasion in which the sailors throw their nets they cached a
lot of fish like the ones in Spain. So: horse fish, llisses, salmons, sabogues, gall fish, salpes fish,
corbines fish, European pilchards, and cancers resolved to give to the island a name according with
Spain so in the 9th of December gave it the name of the Hispaniola.
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Not allowed to be Catalonian
If necessary to delete the names of Catalonians in the chronicles and to create and spread the idea
that those didn鈥檛 intervene in the discovery, evangelisation, and settlement of America the censors
had to change the nature of the discoverer.
It was necessary to eliminate all relation between the discoverer and Catalonia. To do so the
discoverer was made Italian-like. The name 鈥淐olom鈥 was changed by 鈥淐olombo鈥 and a similar
origin was searched. Genovese. That came in favour for in the Spanish language of the age there
was the oddity to call 鈥淕enovese鈥 all foreigners which Columbus was not being a Castilian himself.
Anyway, the origins of the discoverer have been changing depending of the fashion of each age:
there is a manuscript in the British Museum in London and another in the National Library in Madrid
in which he is said to came from Milan. In the Royal Academy of the History and in the National
Library of Spain he is called a Genovese.
Manuel Gomez Moreno and Juan Carriazo demonstrated that the manuscript of the National
Library in Madrid dated of 1594 is mysteriously with handwriting of the XVII century. It seems that
the censors did their own thing again.
The evidence is so wide that I will filter for the ones that demonstrate the Catalonian condition of
Columbus which make the whole official history hard to believe. It is clearly evident in all European
publishing of the 鈥淟etter鈥 by Columbus which announced the discovery where we can read 鈥淐olom鈥
almost ever. In the Italian versions the evidence of being translated from the Catalonian is plain.
The quantity of names with which the new lands of America and the genealogic links with the
Colom-Bertran family from Barcelona and the statements by Ferrer de Blanes in which is clearly
written that the admiral and himself have the same lords are too much of evidence to ignore.
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In the 鈥渕emorandum鈥 that Columbus gave to Antoni Torres to be transmitted to the kings the
30th of January 1494 Columbus asked to Their Highnesses 鈥渁s King and Queen my natural lords to
whom service I desire to finish my days鈥
This expression (Natural lords) is key to reveal that his Catalonian nature. This expression implies
the speaker that he is subject by the natural order to those ho he is speaking. In other words:
Columbus considered himself subject of the Catholic Kings by nature so by being native of one of
their reigns and not from an act of naturalization of contractual submission.
Because Columbus was not natural of the crown of Castile where he was a foreigner without a
doubt as he writes in plenty of documents but he was at the same time a subject of the Catholic
Kings that means that he could only be natural from the other kingdoms that where not Castile but
dominion of the Catholic Kings.
Therefore if Columbus was natural of Spain as testified by Ferrer de Blanes. If the German version
of the 鈥淟etter鈥 calls him 鈥淐ristoforus Colom von Hispania鈥. If he had the Catholic Kings as natural
sovereigns but being himself a foreigner to Castile. That only can mean that he was native of any of
the land of the Aragonese-Catalonian confederation.
Is because of that that there is not a single text in Italian written by the admiral. Not even when
writing to his supposed Italian friends.
There are plenty of proofs demonstrating the links between Columbus and Catalonia:
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{ The grand-daughter of the discoverer was married with the Duke of Sanc de Cardona.
{ Alexandre Cosco was the translator to Latin of the 鈥淟etter鈥 by Columbus.
{ Bernat Cosco is one of the heirs of the religious Francesc Colom.
{ Several times Columbus wrote 鈥淪io鈥 at the 鈥淏ook of the prophecies鈥 as if it was his own thing.
{ Casaus says in the 鈥淕eneral History of the Indies鈥 that the parents of the admiral 鈥渨here notable
people rich in a time and made poor by wars and partialities never lacking in Lombardy鈥. Was Henry
Harrisse who denounced the lack of truth in those statements comparing with the live that lived the
Colombo family in Geneva. They were never noble, never participated in a war. Nevertheless
Columbus was never considered from Lombardy by any chronicle. Nor there is any documented proof
that induces to think so. If we substitute back the work 鈥淟ombardy鈥 by 鈥淐atalonia鈥 it all makes sense
because the Colom family from Barcelona where noble, participated in the war by the Generalitat
against John II and yes they had to exile.
The 28th of May 1493 the kings gave to Columbus in Barcelona the document for which they
authorised him to use the employment of governing the lands of the Indies. By the powers given by
the monarchs to Columbus he named Pere Margarit as head of the military force sent to the New
World in the second expedition. This naming can only have the explanation that amongst Margarit and
Columbus there was a previous relation or a common nation. Several rhetoricians demonstrated that
the full name of Pere Margarit was Pere Bertran Margarit the cousin of Bertran de Gelida which
where cousins of the Colom-Bertran of Barcelona. The link between the discoverer and the family is
yet more evident.
The atmosphere of Catalonian relationships of Columbus is widened even more with the following
proof: the relations between Lluis Santangel and the discoverer are know by al and the involvement
of this sailor in the funding of the first voyage. It happens to be that Santangel was son of the
Valencian canviador and very well connected with the banks of Barcelona, Valencia and Zaragoza in
1466. in 1472 he went to Barcelona and established himself in the house of Guillem-Joan Colom in
Sant Domenech street in the Jew quarter.
The link between Christopher Columbus and the Colom-Bertran family of Barcelona is evident once
again by the heraldic. We know that Columbus used to bring with himself his own arms gained by his
family and that those arms where widened by the monarchs in Barcelona from a document of the 24th
of May 1493. Over the shield there is clearly seen with the round world and with a cross upon it which
curiously coincides with the Catalonian family of Mont-Ros. If we examine the genealogic tree of the
Colom from Barcelona we can clearly see the link with the Mont-Ros: Lluis Colom Bertran was
married with Violant de Mont-Ros.
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Regarding the surname of the discoverer we know thanks to Casaus and Ferran Colom that when
Columbus signed in Latin before the discovery of America he did it as 鈥淐olumbus de Terra-rubea鈥 (or
in other versions 鈥淐olumbus de Terra-rubra鈥) which is no other than the Latin equivalent of the
Catalonian surnames 鈥淐olom鈥 and 鈥淢ont-Ros鈥.
Continuing with the arms of Columbus in the second quarter there is a rampant lion which by
historiography inertia has bee associated with the lion of Leon in Castile. It has been founded though
that the Marimon family from Barcelona had as heraldic sign the very same rampant lion. That
wouldn鈥檛 mean anything if they weren鈥檛 linked with the Colom family: Guillem Ramon Colom
grandfather of Lluis Colom married Catarina de Marimon. It looks to much of a coincidence.
The remaining proof in the arms of the discoverer is the blue line in the fifth quarter of the arms.
Once again this line relates to the Bertran family which with the So where the only two Catalonian
families characterized by a line.
In resume, the relation between the Colom-Bertran family and Christopher Columbus matches with
exact precision.
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The Toponymy
Another surprising fact is the translation to Spanish of the toponymy. In that way, the 鈥淔errandina鈥
and 鈥淚lla Bella鈥 in the 鈥淟etter鈥 by Columbus where changed in Casaus texts for 鈥淔ernandina鈥 and
This is just an example. There are more severe examples: 鈥淐otlliure鈥 for 鈥淐oluna鈥, 鈥淟a punta del
Galiot鈥 for 鈥淟a Punta de la Galera鈥, 鈥淔ortalesa de la Nativitat鈥 for 鈥淔ortaleza de la Navidad鈥, etc.
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According to the columbine history the enterprise of the discovery was exclusively supported by
Castile. How is then possible that Casaus speaks ducats, excellents, florins and golden marks which
are currencies from the Aragonese crown?
For instance, when Medinaceli鈥檚 duke provides Columbus with what that one required for the
expedition mentions 鈥渦p to 3000 or 4000 ducats鈥. The ducats weren鈥檛 introduced in Castile since
13th of June 1497 by 鈥淧ragmatica de Medina del Campo鈥. It is obvious that the economic
operation had to happen in any of the Aragonese crown dominions where this currency was used at
John鈥檚 II age.
Another example by Ferran Colom in 鈥淗istory of the Admiral鈥 when mentioning 鈥淭he admiral only
asked for five hundred shields to prepare the armada鈥. Because the 鈥渟hield鈥 wasn鈥檛 introduced into
the peninsula since 1535 it is evident that the substitution of 鈥渟ome coin鈥 by the 鈥渟hields鈥 was
done by the censors after that date with the intention of making the mentioned currency disappear.
There is a further censorship of the currencies. It has not to do with the payment but with the
price with which the discoverer taxes some of the exchanges of American products done by his
sailors. While the German version of the 鈥淟etter鈥 by Columbus published in Strasbourg on 1497
speaks about 鈥淕olden ducats鈥, giving clear evidence of the Catalonian nature of the currency the
Latin versions published in Castile speak about 鈥淕olden solidus鈥 a Castilian currency at that time.
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The Catalonian ill-spellings by the Admiral
A 鈥渃atalanada鈥 is an ill-spelling done by a Catalonian when speaking in other latin-derived
languages due to the close connections between them.
The admiral鈥檚 鈥淥n-board diary鈥 by Columbus is full of catalanadas. It鈥檚 not understandable that
an Italian could write with such a Catalonian style without ever having been in Catalonia.
Let鈥檚 see some examples:
{ <> (7 Agost)
{ <> (29 set)
{ <> (4 Oct)
{ <> (13 Oct)
{ <> (15 Oct)
{ <> (17 Oct)
{ <> (21 Oct)
{ <
Also the fact that in the 鈥淥n-board diary鈥 is empty of Italian syntactic structures and that there
is no other original text written in Italian led to think that the 鈥淥n-board diary鈥 that reached our
days is no other than a translation of a Catalonian one.
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The manipulation of history has been and still is a weapon the
winner uses upon the loser and a country needs its history.
Castile and Spain lately have tried it several times
Thus there are serious reasons to start doubting about the official history and specially in the issue
of America.
It is time to understand that that naval quest couldn鈥檛 ever be done by an ignorant crew who
didn鈥檛 know where they where going and without knowing who was leading them.
There is clear evidence that where the Catalonians those who discovered America and that the
official history has been a lie at the service of Spain but a lie at last regardless of being widely
believed for a long time.

Jordi Puigner贸 i Ferrer
Sant Cugat del Vall猫s, October, 1999

Aleix Galvany (Translator)
London, April, 2006

BILBENY, Jordi. Brev铆ssima Relaci贸 de la Destrucci贸 de la Historia.

La Falsificaci贸 de la Descoberta Catalana d'Am猫rica.

El Set-ci猫ncies. Arenys de Mar, 1998

versió per imprimir

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