13-03-2020  (397 lectures) Categoria: Articles

Report on minority issues on rapporteur visit to Spain

nforme sobre q眉estions minorit脿ries sobre la visita de ponent a Espanya



A / HRC / 43/47 / Add.1


Versi贸 editada anticipada

Distr .: General

9 de mar莽 del 2020

Original: angl猫s





Consell de Drets Humans

Quaranta tercera sessi贸

24 de febrer al 20 de mar莽 de 2020

Punt 3 de l鈥檕rdre del dia

Promoci贸 i protecci贸 de tots els drets humans, civils,

drets pol铆tics, econ貌mics, socials i culturals,

incl貌s el dret al desenvolupament

Visita a Espanya

Informe del relator especial sobre q眉estions minorit脿ries * , **

Resum

El relator especial sobre q眉estions de minories va visitar Espanya del 14 al 25 de gener de 2019. En el present informe, fa diverses recomanacions i observacions amb l'objectiu d'ajudar el Govern i altres actors rellevants en els seus esfor莽os per abordar els reptes en la implementaci贸 de l'茅sser hum脿. drets de les minories a Espanya.

A l'informe, el relator especial tamb茅 analitza els aven莽os positius i se centra en 脿rees de significaci贸 especial pel que fa a les minories, com ara l'educaci贸, l'煤s de lleng眉es minorit脿ries, l'habitatge, l'ocupaci贸, els serveis administratius i judicials, l'acc茅s a la salut i altres serveis p煤blics, la participaci贸 de les minories en la vida p煤blica i els esfor莽os per combatre el discurs d鈥檕di i altres formes d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia dirigides a les minories, inclosa la islamof貌bia i l鈥檃ntigipsisme. L鈥檌nforme tamb茅 inclou una secci贸 sobre la comunitat de sords i l鈥櫭簊 de les lleng眉es de signes a Espanya.


Annex

Informe del relator especial sobre q眉estions minorit脿ries en la seva visita a Espanya

I. Introducci贸

1. El relator especial en q眉estions de minories va realitzar, per invitaci贸 del Govern, una visita oficial a Espanya del 14 al 25 de gener de 2019. Va visitar la capital, Madrid i les localitats de Barcelona, 鈥嬧婤ilbao, Santiago de Compostela, Sevilla i Vit貌ria-Gasteiz a les comunitats aut貌nomes d'Andalusia, Pa铆s Basc, Catalunya i Gal铆cia. Va consultar 脿mpliament amb diversos representants governamentals i grups d'inter猫s, tant nacionals com locals, inclosos alts funcionaris del govern del Ministeri de la Presid猫ncia, Relacions amb les Corts i Igualtat, el Ministeri d'Afers Exteriors, la Uni贸 Europea i la Cooperaci贸, el Ministeri de Just铆cia, el Ministeri de l鈥橧nterior, el Ministeri d鈥橢ducaci贸 i Formaci贸 Professional, el Ministeri de Treball, Migracions i Seguretat Social, el ministeri competent en mat猫ria de pol铆tica territorial i funci贸 p煤blica, el Ministeri de Cultura i Esport i el Ministeri de Salut i Consum. i Benestar Social. Tamb茅 es va reunir amb el fiscal general i els membres del seu despatx, els membres del Tribunal Suprem, els membres del Senat i del Congr茅s dels Diputats, i el S铆ndic de Greuges i membres dels seus equips. Tamb茅 va poder reunir-se amb autoritats, aix铆 com a defensors i membres dels seus equips, a les quatre comunitats aut貌nomes visitades.

2. A m茅s, el relator especial va consultar amb un ampli ventall d'organitzacions de la societat civil que treballen sobre q眉estions que afecten minories. Tamb茅 es va reunir amb membres de comunitats minorit脿ries, com ara les comunitats gitanes, asturianes, balears, basques, catalanes, gallegues i valencianes, i els seus representants; representants de minories musulmanes i jueves; migrants procedents del Marroc; i altres. Entre els membres de les comunitats minorit脿ries es va reunir el Relator Especial, els membres i representants de la comunitat gitana representaven, amb difer猫ncia, la major proporci贸. Aix貌 va ser degut en part a que la poblaci贸 gitana a Espanya, que es calcula en 750.000, [1] es calcula que 茅s la poblaci贸 m茅s gran de gitanos a Europa occidental, per貌 tamb茅 perqu猫 els gitanos romanen entre els pobles m茅s marginats i vulnerables del pa铆s, amb l鈥檃nticipisme encara est猫s. i profundament arrelat en actituds socials i culturals i pr脿ctiques institucionals. Tamb茅 es va reunir amb defensors dels drets de les minories, representants de dones i minories minorit脿ries, aix铆 com treballadors de la comunitat.

3. En el seu informe anual de 2019 a l'Assemblea General (A / 74/160), el relator especial va presentar un estudi sobre el concepte de minoria al sistema de les Nacions Unides. Com a resultat de l'estudi, va declarar que utilitzar脿 i promouria, com a part del seu mandat, per promoure la realitzaci贸 plena i efectiva dels drets humans de les minories i per dur a terme les seves activitats sota el mandat, el concepte seg眉ent de minoria. :

Una minoria 猫tnica, religiosa o ling眉铆stica 茅s qualsevol grup de persones que constitueix menys de la meitat de la poblaci贸 a tot el territori d鈥檜n Estat els membres de la qual comparteixen caracter铆stiques comunes de cultura, religi贸 o llengua, o una combinaci贸 d鈥檃quests. Una persona pot pert脿nyer lliurement a una minoria 猫tnica, religiosa o ling眉铆stica sense cap requisit de ciutadania, resid猫ncia, reconeixement oficial o cap altre estatus (ibid., Par. 53).

4. Coherent amb aquest concepte, i tal com es va anunciar al F貌rum del 2017 sobre q眉estions de minories, es considera que s贸n membres d鈥檜na minoria ling眉铆stica les persones sordes i amb audi猫ncia greu que utilitzin llenguatges de signes. Els grups catalans, bascos i altres grups ling眉铆stics que poden constituir una majoria num猫rica en algunes regions del pa铆s, per貌 restant num猫ricament menys de la meitat de la poblaci贸 a tot l'Estat, tamb茅 es consideren minories segons aquesta definici贸 de treball.

5. El Relator Especial agraeix al Govern d'Espanya l'esperit constructiu i la cooperaci贸 mostrats durant la visita i la seva disposici贸 a iniciar-se en un di脿leg obert per comprendre millor i valorar la situaci贸 dels drets humans de les minories del pa铆s. Tamb茅 expressa el seu agra茂ment a les nombroses organitzacions no governamentals nacionals i internacionals que van proporcionar informaci贸 i es van reunir amb ell. [2]

II. Objectius de la visita

6. Els objectius de la visita eren identificar, en esperit de cooperaci贸 i di脿leg constructiu, bones pr脿ctiques i possibles obstacles a la promoci贸 i protecci贸 dels drets humans de les persones que pertanyen a minories nacionals o 猫tniques, religioses i ling眉铆stiques en Espanya en conformitat amb el mandat. M茅s concretament, el relator especial tenia com a objectiu proposar possibles maneres d鈥檃frontar les llacunes existents, identificar possibles millores a la legislaci贸, pol铆tiques i pr脿ctiques existents i, en particular, identificar vies per a la realitzaci贸 efectiva per part d鈥橢spanya de les seves obligacions internacionals en relaci贸 amb els drets humans de minories.

7. L鈥檕bjectiu general era examinar la legislaci贸, les pol铆tiques i les pr脿ctiques existents per a la protecci贸 i la promoci贸 dels drets de les persones que pertanyen a minories nacionals o 猫tniques, religioses o ling眉铆stiques. El relator especial tamb茅 ha volgut explorar aspectes relatius a les minories en 脿rees de significaci贸 especial, com ara l鈥檈ducaci贸, l鈥櫭簊 de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries, l鈥檋abitatge, l鈥檕cupaci贸, els serveis administratius i judicials, l鈥檃cc茅s a la salut i altres serveis p煤blics, la participaci贸 de les minories en la proc茅s pol铆tic i esfor莽os per combatre el discurs d鈥檕di i altres formes d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia dirigides a minories, incloses la islamof貌bia i l鈥檃ntigipsisme. Tamb茅 va voler tenir un millor sentit del marc normatiu que regula els drets humans en general i, en particular, de les minories, incloent les darreres modificacions a la legislaci贸, actes i altres mecanismes establerts al respecte. Aquests aspectes s贸n claus per comprendre millor les barreres a la inclusi贸 que experimenten algunes comunitats minorit脿ries i per qu猫 algunes minories poden desconfiar d鈥檈ntitats i mecanismes p煤blics de l鈥橢stat o tenen greuges en relaci贸 amb all貌 que perceben com la negaci贸 dels seus drets humans o el rebuig, basat per prejudicis o biaix de llarga durada.

III. Context general

8. Amb una poblaci贸 superior als 46 milions, Espanya presenta un ric tap铆s de lleng眉es, cultures i religions.

9. La llengua espanyola oficial (castell脿) 茅s parlada per gaireb茅 tots els espanyols com a primera o segona llengua. En 11 de les 17 comunitats aut貌nomes, el castell脿 茅s l'煤nica llengua oficial. A les sis comunitats aut貌nomes restants (Catalunya, Illes Balears, Gal铆cia, Pa铆s Basc, Navarra i Comunitat Valenciana), el castell脿 茅s una llengua cooficial juntament amb una o m茅s de les seg眉ents lleng眉es: catal脿, basc, valenci脿, gallec i occit脿. (Aran猫s). Gaireb茅 el 30% de la poblaci贸 espanyola parla de les minories cooficials. D'altra banda, la diversitat ling眉铆stica d'Espanya s'enriqueix a m茅s a m茅s de la varietat d'idiomes que parlen les diferents comunitats d'immigrants, inclosos l'脿rab, el roman猫s, l'angl猫s, l'alemany, el franc猫s, el rus, el portugu猫s i l'itali脿. Tot i que no hi ha dades fiables sobre el nombre exacte d鈥檜suaris de lleng眉es de signes (llengua de signes espanyola i llengua de signes catalana) al pa铆s, alguns estimen que se situa entre 100.000 i 150.000.

10. La majoria clara dels espanyols es consideren cat貌lics, tot i que en un estudi recent, el 46,8% dels enquestats es van identificar com a cat貌lics no practicants, en comparaci贸 amb el 21,5% dels enquestats que es van identificar com a cat貌lics practicants. [3] Moltes persones que s贸n minories en termes de religi贸 o creen莽a s鈥檃utoidentifiquen com ateu (12,5 per cent) o agn貌stic (7,3 per cent). Altres minories religioses representen proporcions molt menors de la poblaci贸 espanyola. Les recents onades d鈥檌mmigraci贸 han provocat un nombre creixent de musulmans i cristians no cat貌lics, especialment protestants, amb l鈥檌slam constituint la segona agrupaci贸 religiosa m茅s gran del pa铆s. Es suggereix que prop de 2 milions de musulmans poden viure a Espanya, cosa que representa el 4% de la poblaci贸 total del pa铆s. Molts s贸n immigrants procedents de pa茂sos del nord d鈥櫭frica; gaireb茅 la meitat s贸n ciutadans espanyols. Els jueus a Espanya representen menys del 0,2% de la poblaci贸, o unes 40.000 persones.

IV. Marc legal i institucional

A. Marc internacional

11. Espanya 茅s part de tots els tractats internacionals b脿sics sobre drets humans, a excepci贸 de la Convenci贸 internacional sobre la protecci贸 dels drets de tots els treballadors migrants i membres de les seves fam铆lies. T茅 un marc legal complet per a la protecci贸 dels drets humans i una arquitectura institucional ben desenvolupada. A m茅s, Espanya 茅s part de la Convenci贸 marc del Consell d'Europa per a la protecci贸 de les minories nacionals des de l'1 de setembre de 1995.

12. El relator especial assenyala que durant el segon cicle de la revisi贸 peri貌dica universal, Espanya va acceptar diverses recomanacions sobre mesures de lluita contra el racisme, la discriminaci贸 racial, la xenof貌bia i informaci贸 relacionada sobre intoler脿ncia, perfils 猫tnics i racials per part de la llei i la discriminaci贸. contra les minories de tots els 脿mbits, inclosos en l鈥櫭爉bit de l鈥檕cupaci贸, l鈥檈ducaci贸 i l鈥檋abitatge, aix铆 com recomanacions sobre la situaci贸 dels drets humans i la inclusi贸 social dels gitanos, sobre protecci贸 i promoci贸 dels drets de les minories religioses i sobre l鈥檃cc茅s a la just铆cia i a els remeis efectius de persones pertanyents a minories (vegeu A / HRC / 29/8 i Add.1).

B. Marc constitucional i legislatiu

13. La no discriminaci贸 es recull a l鈥檃rticle 14 de la Constituci贸, que estableix que els espanyols s贸n iguals davant la llei i no poden ser discriminats en cap cas per ra贸 de naixement, ra莽a, sexe, religi贸, opini贸 o cap altra personal o social. condici贸 o circumst脿ncia.

14. Es garanteix la protecci贸 per a un gran nombre de drets humans en virtut del t铆tol I de la Constituci贸, incloent la llibertat de religi贸 o de creen莽a (art. 16), llibertat d'expressi贸 (art. 20), llibertats de reuni贸 i d'associaci贸 (arts. 21 鈥22), acc茅s a la just铆cia (art. 24), dret a l鈥檈ducaci贸 (art. 27), dret a un habitatge adequat (art. 47) i garanties per als drets de les persones amb discapacitat (art. 49).

15. La Llei n煤m. 62/2003, de 30 de desembre de 2003, transposada en les lleis nacionals Directives n煤m. 2000/43 i n煤m. 2000/78 del Consell de la Uni贸 Europea sobre no discriminaci贸. Cobreix tots els motius de discriminaci贸 i inclou definicions tant per a discriminaci贸 directa com indirecta, encara que en alguns casos un o diversos motius no figuren espec铆ficament en una disposici贸 individual.

16. A la Llei Org脿nica n煤m. 4/2000, de l'11 de gener de 2000, sobre els drets i les llibertats dels estrangers a Espanya i la seva integraci贸 social, la discriminaci贸 es defineix com qualsevol acte contra un estranger per ra莽a, color, descend猫ncia, nacional o 猫tnic. origen o creences i pr脿ctiques religioses.

17. Tot i que totes les lleis esmentades anteriorment poden, quan s'interpreten 脿mpliament, cobreixen tots els motius de discriminaci贸, no inclouen espec铆ficament el llenguatge, una omissi贸 que potser 茅s incompatible amb una s猫rie d'obligacions del tractat internacional per a les quals aquesta caracter铆stica 茅s fonamental.

18. Altres novetats legislatives importants s贸n l'adopci贸 de la Llei n煤m. 27/2007, de 23 d'octubre de 2007, per la qual es reconeixien les lleng眉es de signes i els sistemes d'ajuda a la parla i el Reial decret legislatiu n煤m. 1/2013, de 29 de novembre de 2013, pel qual el general es va adoptar la llei sobre els drets de les persones amb discapacitat i la seva inclusi贸 social. [4]

C. Marc institucional

19. La Llei n煤m. 62/2003, modificada per la Llei n煤m. 15/2014, de 16 de setembre de 2014, de racionalitzaci贸 del sector p煤blic i d鈥檃ltres mesures de reforma administrativa, preveia la creaci贸 del Consell per a l鈥檈liminaci贸 del Racial o Discriminaci贸 猫tnica. El Consell va entrar en funcionament el 28 d'octubre de 2009. [5] Est脿 adscrit administrativament al Ministeri de la Presid猫ncia, Relacions amb les Corts i la Igualtat a trav茅s de l'Institut per a les Dones i la Igualtat d'Oportunitats, i 茅s un 貌rgan col路legiat que inclou representants nacionals, regionals i administracions locals, interlocutors socials i diverses organitzacions de la societat civil. Funcionant de manera independent, proporciona assist猫ncia a les v铆ctimes de discriminaci贸, realitza investigacions i publica informes, ofereix mediacions i presenta den煤ncies amb el Defensor del Poble, autoritats p煤bliques, serveis d鈥檌nspecci贸 i organitzacions de consumidors. El Consell va ajudar en l'establiment d'una xarxa per proporcionar assist猫ncia a les v铆ctimes de discriminaci贸 racial o 猫tnica; Els serveis d'assist猫ncia s贸n proporcionats per vuit organitzacions especialitzades amb oficines en diferents regions. [6] Tot i aix貌, hi ha preocupacions sobre la capacitat del Consell per iniciar investigacions en casos de discriminaci贸 i iniciar i participar en els procediments judicials. [7]

20. Hi ha unitats especialitzades en el delicte d鈥檕di a les fiscals provincials del pa铆s i un memorandum interinstitucional d鈥檈ntesa entre les institucions de l鈥檃dministraci贸 p煤blica nacional, incloses les organitzacions de la societat civil com a observadors. A m茅s, l'Observatori contra el Racisme i la Xenof貌bia ha desenvolupat i implementat programes de formaci贸 per a funcionaris governamentals, incloent l'aplicaci贸 de la llei, i programes espec铆fics sobre la no discriminaci贸 en 脿mbits com la salut, l'educaci贸 i Internet.

21. L鈥橭ficina del Defensor del Poble es va constituir mitjan莽ant la Llei org脿nica n煤m. 3/1981, de 6 d鈥檃bril de 1981, amb el mandat de supervisar el respecte i la promoci贸 dels drets humans dins de l鈥橝dministraci贸 general de l鈥橢stat (serveis administratius estatals nacionals) i els regionals i locals. administracions i per llan莽ar investigacions tant d'ofici com a base de queixes rebudes. Els defensors p煤blics de les comunitats aut貌nomes tamb茅 contribueixen a l鈥檃genda de drets humans a nivell regional i local.

22. Finalment, pel que fa al moviment associatiu de gitanos, el Consell d'Estat del poble gitano es va constituir el 2005 mitjan莽ant el Reial decret n煤m. 891/2005, de 22 de juliol de 2005, [8] com a 貌rgan consultiu interministerial adscrit al Ministeri de Salut , Consum i Benestar Social, amb la participaci贸 d鈥檜n nombre important d鈥檕rganitzacions i associacions de gitanos. Els seus objectius principals s贸n desenvolupar i refor莽ar la col路laboraci贸 amb l鈥檃dministraci贸 de l鈥橢stat, especialment en l鈥櫭爉bit de les pol铆tiques de benestar social, i augmentar la consci猫ncia sobre els drets humans dels gitanos a Espanya i refor莽ar la capacitat de protecci贸 i promoci贸 d鈥檃quests drets. Es van establir 貌rgans d'assessorament similars a nivell regional, per exemple a Catalunya, Pa铆s Basc i Extremadura.

V. Etapes i desenvolupament positius

23. Els enormes aven莽os realitzats per Espanya en el camp dels drets humans des de la seva transici贸 a la democr脿cia el 1977/78 no sempre s贸n plenament apreciats ni prou reconeguts. Els m茅s de 40 anys de democr脿cia del pa铆s han donat lloc a un Estat modern i din脿mic que es dedica plenament a les institucions europees i internacionals, amb un govern efectiu, un poder judicial i formes d鈥檃utonomia que responen en part a la realitat d鈥檜n Estat amb un rica diversitat cultural. Espanya no 茅s una federaci贸, sin贸 un estat unitari molt descentralitzat. Les 17 comunitats aut貌nomes han contribu茂t molt a la participaci贸 pol铆tica m茅s efectiva de les minories m茅s grans del pa铆s, com les minories basca, catalana i gallega, i han proporcionat mitjans per a recon猫ixer i implementar els drets d鈥檃questes minories en 脿mbits com la llengua i la cultura. Aquest ha estat un desenvolupament definitiu en el cam铆 del pa铆s cap a una democr脿cia m茅s inclusiva i que abraci la seva diversitat hist貌rica i la realitat del seu ric tap铆s de lleng眉es, cultures i religions.

24. Espanya ha fet molts aven莽os legislatius, institucionals i pol铆tics en 脿mbits com la protecci贸 dels drets humans, la lluita contra la viol猫ncia de g猫nere i la inclusi贸 de comunitats de gitanos, tot i que moltes de les iniciatives d鈥檃quests 脿mbits van ser fortament afectades durant la greu crisi financera de 2008鈥2014. Els plans operatius establerts per implementar l'estrat猫gia nacional d'integraci贸 de gitanos a Espanya 2012-2020, juntament amb moltes altres mesures, han contribu茂t sens dubte a una disminuci贸 de l'analfabetisme, a un augment de l'assist猫ncia escolar i a altres resultats positius i mesurables. Espanya va recon猫ixer les seves dues lleng眉es de signes principals el 2007 i ha pres mesures per assegurar l鈥櫭簊 de la llengua de signes en diverses 脿rees, tot i que el seu reconeixement i suport tendeixen a centrar-se en la llengua de signes espanyola i no la llengua de signes catalana. Hi ha hagut iniciatives innovadores per ajudar i integrar millor el nombre creixent de migrants i estrangers, com ara marroquins i romanesos, que arriben i s鈥檃llotgen a Espanya, incloent-hi alguna informaci贸 i assist猫ncia en els seus idiomes.

25. El 2006, el Govern va incorporar al seu sistema educatiu un curs titulat 鈥淓ducaci贸 per a la ciutadania i els drets humans鈥, d鈥檃cord amb la recomanaci贸 Rec (2002) 12 sobre l鈥檈ducaci贸 per a la ciutadania democr脿tica, dictada pel Comit猫 de Ministres del Consell d鈥橢uropa. als Estats membres

26. Espanya ha de ser encomiada per aquestes mesures i altres. Tanmateix, els problemes de drets humans en relaci贸 amb les minories de vegades se senten com una 鈥渉ist貌ria inacabada鈥. S'inclouen els reptes continuats o les lacunes en diversos aspectes transversals, com ara la llengua de l'educaci贸, i q眉estions espec铆fiques per a minories establertes de temps o per a arribades m茅s recents sobre la naturalesa dels seus drets com a minories.

VI. 脌rees de preocupaci贸 i 脿rees de millora en el reconeixement, la protecci贸 i la implementaci贸 dels drets humans de les minories

27. El Govern ha fet mesures importants en els darrers anys cap a una estrat猫gia i unes iniciatives prou exhaustives per combatre la discriminaci贸, la parla d鈥檕di i els delictes d鈥檕di contra les minories i altres grups vulnerables. El relator especial insta, tanmateix, al Govern a emprendre mesures addicionals, millores i canvis en les 脿rees on es necessitin m茅s esfor莽os per garantir el compliment complet del pa铆s de les seves obligacions internacionals de drets humans en relaci贸 amb les minories. Assenyala, a m茅s, que cal abordar algunes desafortunades novetats. L'eliminaci贸 de l'educaci贸 en drets humans i la ciutadania com a un curs diferent a les escoles i la seva substituci贸 per una classe m茅s general sobre educaci贸 c铆vica i constitucional com a tema interdisciplinari, el curs acad猫mic 2014/15, no va ser especialment 煤til pel que fa a la promoci贸 d'un societat inclusiva i tolerant a trav茅s de l鈥檈ducaci贸 i s鈥檋auria de replantejar.

A. Dades desagregades

28. Espanya, juntament amb altres pa茂sos, no recopila sistem脿ticament dades desagregades sobre els idiomes, les cultures o la religi贸 de la seva poblaci贸, sin贸 que recull dades de poblaci贸 sobre g猫nere i nacionalitat (distingint ciutadans d'Espanya i estrangers). Aquest enfocament no resulta en la informaci贸 precisa sobre la poblaci贸 que 茅s necess脿ria per dissenyar pol铆tiques i programes governamentals m茅s ben orientats, efica莽os i basats en evid猫ncies. Tal com ha mantingut el Relator Especial en les anteriors missions de pa茂sos, aquestes dades permeten als governs planificar programes per arribar als m茅s necessitats. Aix貌 茅s particularment cert pel que fa a la mesura de l'impacte que les pol铆tiques i els programes tenen sobre els m茅s vulnerables i marginats, incloses les minories.

29. Sembla que aquest enfocament es dirigeix 鈥嬧媝rincipalment a la protecci贸 de dades personals i es basa en consideracions de privadesa fora de lloc. La informaci贸 personal es pot eliminar de les dades del cens i d鈥檃ltres col路leccions de dades desagregades 煤tils, com es fa per a les dades recollides sobre g猫nere en molts altres pa茂sos. Com han assenyalat algunes organitzacions internacionals i europees, un enfocament no desagregat fa que sigui especialment dif铆cil identificar efica莽ment aquells que pateixen discriminaci贸 i construir adequadament pol铆tiques basades en evid猫ncies que garanteixin l'acc茅s a diversos serveis i el ple compliment dels drets humans, fins i tot drets b脿sics com l鈥檈ducaci贸. Les autoritats han de seguir i ampliar els seus esfor莽os per millorar les pr脿ctiques per obtenir dades fiables sobre la igualtat, desglossades per origen 猫tnic o nacional, llengua, religi贸 i cultura, en ple respecte de les normes internacionals de protecci贸 de dades pertinents, per tal d鈥檃ugmentar l鈥檈fectivitat de les mesures. dissenyat per promoure la igualtat plena i efectiva de les persones que pertanyen a minories nacionals.

30. Per exemple, avaluacions clares i objectives de l鈥檌mpacte dels diferents models educatius mitjan莽ant la doc猫ncia d鈥檌mmersi贸, biling眉e o multiling眉e que s鈥檌mplementen a tot Espanya seria molt benefici贸s per dissipar afirmacions inexactes i poc 煤tils sobre l鈥檌mpacte pedag貌gic d鈥檃quests models sobre el rendiment acad猫mic en general. i pel que fa a la compet猫ncia en els idiomes nacionals i cooficials m茅s espec铆ficament. Sembla que l鈥檌nstitut d鈥檃valuaci贸 del Ministeri d鈥橢ducaci贸 va deixar de recollir aquestes proves emp铆riques el 2010.

31. El Relator Especial, i de la majoria d鈥檕bservadors internacionals, 茅s que les dades desagregades s贸n indispensables per garantir que les mesures positives per fer front a les q眉estions de drets humans, incloses les de minories, siguin efectives. Li va ser clar, particularment per membres de la societat civil, que la manca de recollida de dades es veu amb frustraci贸 i impedeix el progr茅s concret en q眉estions de drets humans que involucren gitanos, persones d'ascend猫ncia africana, migrants i altres.

32. El relator especial tamb茅 recomana que, en l鈥櫭爉bit de l鈥檈ducaci贸, l鈥檌nstitut d鈥檃valuaci贸 del Ministeri d鈥橢ducaci贸 reprengui la recollida de dades sobre nivells de compet猫ncia en l鈥檃dquisici贸 de flu茂desa en castell脿 i idiomes cooficials a tot el pa铆s.

B. Autoritats aplicables a la llei i judicials

33. Alguns representants minoritaris de grups especialment vulnerables o marginats, com la comunitat de gitanos, persones d'ascend猫ncia africana i migrants, van expressar v铆vidament al Relator Especial durant la missi贸 com es mantenien desconfiats i a vegades temibles de les forces policials i fins i tot de la poder judicial. Mentre que per a uns quants migrants aix貌 pot estar relacionat amb la seva prec脿ria situaci贸, si la seva estada al pa铆s no 茅s legal, d鈥檃ltres compartien hist貌ries de perfils 猫tnics, assetjament, ridiculitzaci贸 i fins i tot viol猫ncia de les forces i funcionaris que se suposa que han de protegir. Si b茅 el perfil 猫tnic no 茅s condonat oficialment per les autoritats estatals, sembla que lamentablement la seva pr脿ctica no ha desaparegut del tot. En aquest sentit, el relator especial va ser informat que encara hi ha un gran nombre de queixes al Defensor del Poble per al路legaci贸 de controls excessius de detenci贸 i cerca.

34. Tot i que s鈥檋an fet passos lloables cap a l鈥檈liminaci贸 de la perfecci贸 猫tnica per part de la policia, especialment en la formaci贸 de la policia nacional, cal iniciar m茅s programes d鈥檃quest tipus per abordar de forma m茅s efica莽 i espec铆fica el fenomen, que va ser qualificat d鈥檈nd猫mic per part del treball. Grup d鈥檈xperts en poblaci贸 d鈥檕rigen afric脿 a l鈥檌nforme del 2018 sobre la seva missi贸 a Espanya (A / HRC / 39/69 / Add.2, par脿graf 19). El Grup de Treball va assenyalar com les disposicions de la Llei de Seguretat dels Ciutadans, que imposava grans multes per filmar els agents de la llei i revertir la c脿rrega de la prova, havia tingut l'efecte pervers de la gent descendent africana, i tamb茅 cal afegir-hi. veritat de les minories en general, que subratllaven actes discriminatoris per part de funcionaris de la llei i tamb茅 havia provocat la no investigaci贸 i persecuci贸 dels autors de delictes (ib铆dem, par脿graf 21). Aix貌 es va plantejar en algunes de les reunions del Relator Especial amb representants de les comunitats de migrants com un factor important que va contribuir a la desconfian莽a de la policia i del poder judicial: les minories van sentir que no podien presentar les seves den煤ncies, ja que filmar aquest tipus d鈥檌ncidents 茅s il路legal, i que ells Va haver d'assumir la c脿rrega de la prova per qualsevol den煤ncia de conducta policial. Tanmateix, el ministre de l鈥橧nterior va informar al ponent especial que la Llei org脿nica n煤m. 4/2015, de 30 de mar莽 de 2015, de protecci贸 de la seguretat p煤blica, tenia com a objectiu garantir que es respectessin els principis de proporcionalitat i no discriminaci贸. en la identificaci贸 de persones per motius racials, 猫tnics o d鈥檃ltres caracter铆stiques personals. No obstant aix貌, continuen les den煤ncies de perfils racials. En relaci贸 a les penes per filmar els agents de la policia, es va informar al Relator Especial que la Secretaria d'Estat de Seguretat havia dictat, a l'octubre de 2018, instruccions estrictes que filmar o fer una foto de funcionaris de la llei no supos茅s una infracci贸 com a tal. Les instruccions tamb茅 aclareixen que, despr茅s de totes les cerques f铆siques, els agents de la llei han de comunicar a la persona que ha buscat una declaraci贸 escrita amb els motius de la cerca, la informaci贸 d鈥檌dentificaci贸 i la descripci贸 de l鈥檌ncident. Si b茅 el relator especial felicita les autoritats espanyoles per aquestes aclariments, assenyala que la legislaci贸 encara vigent podria contradir la interpretaci贸 estricta proposada i que la pr脿ctica dels agents de policia en el camp no semblava complir totalment amb la instruccions.

35. Es va informar al relator especial que una f贸rmula d'informaci贸 que s'havia elaborat requeriria que els agents de la llei identifiquessin possibles situacions de perfil 猫tnic en les seves interaccions amb els membres del p煤blic. Aparentment, la policia municipal de Madrid nom茅s l'ha utilitzat sistem脿ticament, tot i que hi ha propostes per a la seva expansi贸.

C. Marc de drets humans

36. En general, Espanya t茅 un marc legal complet per a la protecci贸 dels drets humans. Tot i aix铆, hi ha algunes omissions en la seva arquitectura de drets humans ben desenvolupada i for莽a extensa que poden tenir un impacte negatiu en particular sobre les minories. L鈥檃rticle 14 de la Constituci贸 i l鈥檃rticle 23 de la Llei org脿nica n煤m. 4/2000, tant d鈥檌gualtat com de no discriminaci贸, contenen un nombre limitat de motius per a les distincions prohibides que no inclouen el llenguatge, una omissi贸 que pot ser incompatible amb un nombre. obligacions de tractats internacionals per a les quals aquesta caracter铆stica 茅s fonamental. Si b茅 l鈥檃partat 1 de l鈥檃rticle 13 de la Constituci贸 indica que els no ciutadans gaudeixen de les llibertats p煤bliques consagrades al t铆tol I de la Constituci贸 d鈥檃cord amb la llei i els tractats, l鈥櫭簊 del terme 鈥渆spanyols鈥 per a aquells amb dret a reclamar. el dret a la igualtat sense discriminaci贸 de l鈥檃rticle 14 茅s problem脿tic, ja que exclou els no ciutadans. Altres titulars del mandat de procediment especial de les Nacions Unides han plantejat les cr铆tiques a la llista restringida de motius de discriminaci贸 prohibits en la legislaci贸 i la Constituci贸. [9] Cal assenyalar que l'article 14 exclou el llenguatge i altres raons de distinci贸 prohibides que es troben habitualment en els tractats de drets humans de les Nacions Unides. Aix貌 podria preocupar-se en relaci贸 a possibles pr脿ctiques discriminat貌ries contra les minories ling眉铆stiques, inclosos els membres de la comunitat sorda que utilitzen llengua de signes espanyola o llengua de signes catalana.

37. Els funcionaris espanyols han suggerit que les disposicions esmentades tenen finalitat oberta i, per tant, que les autoritats judicials i altres autoritats puguin interpretar-les liberalment de manera coherent amb les obligacions internacionals d'Espanya. No es van presentar dades, per貌, per indicar si aix貌 era sistem脿ticament o necess脿riament el cas. Aix铆, les minories ling眉铆stiques poden ser susceptibles a les freq眉猫ncies d'interpretaci贸 i aplicaci贸 locals o individuals.

38. El relator especial recomana que el Govern revisi i modifiqui la legislaci贸 i altres disposicions relacionades amb la prohibici贸 de la discriminaci贸 per assegurar-se que qualsevol llista de motius cont茅 almenys les contingudes habitualment en els principals tractats internacionals de drets humans, 茅s a dir, qualsevol motiu com la ra莽a, color, sexe, llengua, religi贸, opini贸 pol铆tica o d鈥檜na altra manera, origen nacional o social, propietat, naixement o un altre estatus.

D. Racisme, xenof貌bia i discurs d鈥檕di

39. Una altra 脿rea important de preocupaci贸 per a les minories 茅s la protecci贸 contra el discurs d鈥檕di i la incitaci贸 a la viol猫ncia.El Govern ha avan莽at considerablement per abordar aquests temes i s'ha de felicitar per la creaci贸 d'unitats especialitzades per abordar el delicte d'odi, a les oficines de les fiscals provincials, i d'un fiscal especial nacional per supervisar la coordinaci贸 de les activitats antidiscriminaci贸. Altres proteccions destacables, especialment pel que fa a la legislaci贸, inclouen l鈥檃rticle 510 del Codi Penal, que criminalitza la incitaci贸 p煤blica a la viol猫ncia, l鈥檕di o la discriminaci贸 i els fets d鈥檃quells que, en coneixement de la seva falsedat o desconsideraci贸 per la veritat, distribueixen informaci贸 difamat貌ria. , que sovint pot orientar-se a minories i a altres grups vulnerables. Despr茅s de la missi贸 del Relator Especial a Espanya, una circular va aclarir com s鈥檋auria d鈥檌nterpretar aquesta disposici贸,ajudant a circumscriure m茅s clarament la seva aplicaci贸, particularment a la protecci贸 de les minories.[10] L鈥 article 170 del Codi Penal preveu majors penes si les amenaces tenen per objectiu espantar els membres d鈥檜na minoria i altres grups identificats. L鈥檃rticle 22 del Codi Penal identifica com a circumst脿ncia agreujant la intenci贸 de cometre un delicte per racisme, antisemitisme, religi贸 o creences de la v铆ctima o de la seva 猫tnia, ciutadania, g猫nere, orientaci贸 sexual o identitat de g猫nere.

40. Tot i acollint iniciatives destacables com la de l'Observatori contra el racisme i la xenof貌bia, que recopila informaci贸 sobre el delicte d'odi i discursos d'odi i realitza programes de formaci贸 per a educadors, funcionaris de la llei i altres, el relator especial assenyala que Espanya, juntament amb San Marino, s贸n els dos 煤nics membres del Consell d鈥橢uropa a no disposar d鈥檜n 貌rgan d鈥檌gualtat independent. El Consell per a l鈥檈liminaci贸 de la discriminaci贸 racial o 猫tnica no 茅s encara una entitat independent, realitza poques activitats i t茅 pocs recursos a la seva disposici贸. El 2019 es van debatre les propostes per rectificar aquesta situaci贸.

41. Es va informar al relator especial que minories com els gitanos, els de descend猫ncia africana, els migrants i les minories religioses, com els musulmans, informen que consideren que segueixen sent els objectius principals i v铆ctimes d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia expressats en discursos d鈥檕di. A m茅s, relacionat amb fets ocorreguts a Catalunya el 2017, el relator especial va rebre informes sobre un aparent augment del discurs d鈥檕di, vilificaci贸, vandalisme, amenaces f铆siques i fins i tot agressions contra membres de la minoria catalana i, en menor mesura, d鈥檃ltres. minories nacionals. Alguns informes suggereixen que les autoritats no responen o persegueixen prou aquestes den煤ncies i contribueixen indirectament a una atmosfera d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia creixent contra les minories i el vitriol nacionalista.Si b茅 el Relator Especial no 茅s capa莽 de comentar la veracitat de les den煤ncies, assenyala que, entre els membres d鈥檃questes minories, com entre els membres de les comunitats de migrants i les persones d鈥檕rigen afric脿, hi ha una desconfian莽a important envers la policia i fins i tot el poder judicial.

42. Espanya ha desenvolupat diverses pol铆tiques i enfocaments a aquests reptes que cal felicitar, incloses les propostes per a una llei org脿nica m茅s completa de discriminaci贸 i per a una estrat猫gia integral contra el racisme, la discriminaci贸 racial, la xenof貌bia i altres intoler脿ncies relacionades, aix铆 com institucionals. estructures d鈥櫭爉bit nacional, provincial i local, incl貌s el Consell per a l鈥檈liminaci贸 de la discriminaci贸 racial o 猫tnica i altres a qu猫 es fa refer猫ncia anteriorment. No obstant aix貌, es va manifestar la preocupaci贸 perqu猫 moltes d'aquestes iniciatives es van desenvolupar sense aportaci贸 directa ni representaci贸 de les minories afectades, o encara no resultin necess脿riament en accions concretes d'aplicaci贸. Temes com la perpetuaci贸 d鈥檈stereotips negatius de gitanos en not铆cies en qu猫 els gitanos s贸n retratats de forma negativa,o en casos delictius en qu猫 l鈥檕rigen 猫tnic d鈥檜n acusat es revela peri貌dicament quan hi ha un gitano, s贸n recurrents i en gran part no autoritzades per les autoritats espanyoles malgrat les moltes iniciatives i pol铆tiques existents actualment. Es mantenen tamb茅 reptes dif铆cils quant a la difusi贸 de missatges racistes, xen貌fobs i antisemites a Internet i a trav茅s de les xarxes de mitjans socials. Aquests reptes han de ser abordats amb m茅s for莽a, tant pel que fa a la pr脿ctica com pel que es permet en els sistemes legislatius i reguladors vigents. Tamb茅 s鈥檋a de prestar una atenci贸 especial als signes creixents d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia i discurs d鈥檕di dirigits a altres minories a la vista dels esdeveniments del 2017.Les autoritats espanyoles s贸n recurrents i, en gran part, descoratjades, malgrat les moltes iniciatives i pol铆tiques existents actualment. Es mantenen tamb茅 reptes dif铆cils quant a la difusi贸 de missatges racistes, xen貌fobs i antisemites a Internet i a trav茅s de les xarxes de mitjans socials. Aquests reptes han de ser abordats amb m茅s for莽a, tant pel que fa a la pr脿ctica com pel que es permet en els sistemes legislatius i reguladors vigents. Tamb茅 s鈥檋a de prestar una atenci贸 especial als signes creixents d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia i discurs d鈥檕di dirigits a altres minories a la vista dels esdeveniments del 2017.Les autoritats espanyoles s贸n recurrents i, en gran part, descoratjades, malgrat les moltes iniciatives i pol铆tiques existents actualment. Es mantenen tamb茅 reptes dif铆cils quant a la difusi贸 de missatges racistes, xen貌fobs i antisemites a Internet i a trav茅s de les xarxes de mitjans socials. Aquests reptes han de ser abordats amb m茅s for莽a, tant pel que fa a la pr脿ctica com pel que es permet en els sistemes legislatius i reguladors vigents. Tamb茅 s鈥檋a de prestar una atenci贸 especial als signes creixents d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia i discurs d鈥檕di dirigits a altres minories a la vista dels esdeveniments del 2017.Aquests reptes han de ser abordats amb m茅s for莽a, tant pel que fa a la pr脿ctica com pel que es permet en els sistemes legislatius i reguladors vigents. Tamb茅 s鈥檋a de prestar una atenci贸 especial als signes creixents d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia i discurs d鈥檕di dirigits a altres minories a la vista dels esdeveniments del 2017.Aquests reptes han de ser abordats amb m茅s for莽a, tant pel que fa a la pr脿ctica com pel que es permet en els sistemes legislatius i reguladors vigents. Tamb茅 s鈥檋a de prestar una atenci贸 especial als signes creixents d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia i discurs d鈥檕di dirigits a altres minories a la vista dels esdeveniments del 2017.

43. El relator especial recomana que es faci una revisi贸 nacional i s鈥檃dopti un pla estrat猫gic per combatre totes les formes de racisme, xenof貌bia i intoler脿ncia. Hauria de ser una prioritat que els presumptes casos de discurs d鈥檕di comesos a Internet i altres mitjans de comunicaci贸 siguin investigats, processats i sancionats amb m茅s efic脿cia. Com a part d鈥檃quest plantejament, es fa una revisi贸 exhaustiva dels llibres de text de l鈥檈scola per incorporar retrats m茅s inclusius i positius de la diversitat del pa铆s, aix铆 com campanyes de sensibilitzaci贸 i altres activitats per al p煤blic en general que celebra la seva rica associaci贸 amb moltes cultures, idiomes i religions. i recon猫ixer-los com a parts integrants de la moderna societat espanyola, haurien de ser considerats. A m茅s,el relator especial recomana que el Govern dugui a terme campanyes de sensibilitzaci贸 p煤blica i de mitjans de gran visibilitat per continuar fomentant una societat inclusiva formada per moltes cultures, religions i idiomes diferents per intentar contrarestar un aparent augment del discurs d鈥檕di i la intoler脿ncia contra les minories. .

VII. Problemes espec铆fics

A. Discriminaci贸 contra els gitanos

44. Molts gitanos estan molt integrats a algunes parts d'Espanya, per貌 hi ha molts que encara tenen desavantatges socioecon貌mics importants i fins i tot exclusi贸, a m茅s de discriminacions i prejudicis en 脿mbits com ara l'educaci贸, l'habitatge i l'ocupaci贸. Per exemple, era perplex sentir que per l鈥櫭簄ica 脿rea d鈥檃ctivitat econ貌mica m茅s important per a gitanos, el comer莽 ambulant, les regulacions variaven de localitat a localitat, i que els gitanos podrien ser objecte de nombrosos enc脿rrecs d鈥檃plicaci贸 o tractament que sovint eren arbitraris i destructiu - fins i tot discriminatori. Sembla raonable adoptar un enfocament nacional per tal que aquesta activitat econ貌mica tradicional i central es pugui dur a terme amb m茅s efic脿cia i sigui un pas positiu cap a un reconeixement m茅s sensible i inclusiu d'aquesta dimensi贸 de la identitat gitana.Un altre dels temes de preocupaci贸 茅s que els gitanos gaireb茅 no tenen representaci贸 en 貌rgans pol铆tics elegits a nivell nacional, regional o municipal.

45. Durant la missi贸 es van plantejar sovint dos temes en particular: cal continuar amb les escoles segregades i la necessitat de combatre els estereotips negatius de manera m茅s proactiva i amb una imatge molt m茅s positiva de les aportacions de les persones gitanes. La Relatora Especial va quedar impressionada pels pares i activistes gitanos que va con猫ixer a Sevilla, que eren eloq眉ents en expressar la seva ferma creen莽a en la import脿ncia d鈥檜na educaci贸 de qualitat per als seus fills, per part de dones universit脿ries gitanes que serveixen de poderosos models per a les generacions futures, pels professors compromesos i altres funcionaris del govern d'Andalusia que treballen incansablement cap a una societat m茅s inclusiva,i d鈥檃ltres que van destacar que era necessari desafiar i prendre mesures per despla莽ar l鈥檈stereotipat negatiu que mantenien arrossegant els membres de la comunitat gitana.

46. 鈥嬧婱algrat els esfor莽os i els progressos incontestables i encomiables en el camp de l鈥檈ducaci贸 en termes d鈥檃ugment dels 铆ndexs d鈥檃lfabetitzaci贸 dels darrers anys, al voltant del 64% dels nens gitanos encara no han finalitzat l鈥檈ducaci贸 secund脿ria obligat貌ria, mentre que per a la poblaci贸 general aquesta al voltant del 13 per cent cent. Es va informar al relator especial que, tot i que no 茅s condonat per les autoritats espanyoles, a les escoles p煤bliques d'algunes parts del pa铆s, com a la regi贸 de Sevilla, ja que el 90 per cent dels estudiants s贸n gitanos, en part com a conseq眉猫ncia de que no Els pares gitanos que envien els seus fills a altres escoles (que legalment tenen la possibilitat de fer), en lloc de tenir-los asseguts al costat dels gitanos. La poblaci贸 important de gitanos de la zona immediata de les escoles a si mateixa no va explicar l鈥檈levada concentraci贸 d鈥檈studiants gitanos.

47. Calen m茅s esfor莽os per abordar de manera m茅s efectiva les situacions de segregaci贸 educativa. Malgrat l鈥檈strat猫gia nacional d鈥檌ntegraci贸 dels gitanos a Espanya 2012-2020, que inclou una l铆nia d鈥檃cci贸 espec铆fica per desenvolupar mesures per evitar la concentraci贸 d鈥檃lumnes gitanos, no hi ha un estudi nacional per detectar l鈥檃bast del fenomen ni un pla per combatre-lo.

48. El relator especial recomana, doncs, que s鈥檃dopti una nova estrat猫gia nacional d鈥檌ntegraci贸 dels gitanos i que inclogui com a prioritat mesures m茅s detallades, incloses les mesures d鈥檌mplementaci贸, per evitar i reduir la concentraci贸 d鈥檈studiants gitanos en escoles segregades de fet, i disposicions per dur a terme una revisi贸 per identificar els establiments en els quals encara es produeix.

49. El Relator Especial reafirma que calen estrat猫gies i mesures espec铆fiques per combatre els estereotips negatius dels membres de la minoria gitana amb imatges m茅s positives. Tamb茅 s贸n necess脿ries iniciatives que sensibilitzin el p煤blic en general sobre les riques i nombroses aportacions de gitanos al llarg de la hist貌ria espanyola. El relator especial recomana encarregat que s鈥檌mplementi una campanya nacional per despla莽ar l鈥檈stereotipat negatiu que continua arrossegant els membres d鈥檃questa comunitat minorit脿ria. Aquestes iniciatives haurien de ser una part essencial d鈥檜na estrat猫gia global general per combatre l鈥檃ugment aparent d鈥檌ntoler脿ncia i discurs d鈥檕di contra aquesta i altres minories que s鈥檋a observat en algunes parts del pa铆s en els darrers anys.

B. Drets ling眉铆stics

50. El manual titulat "Els drets ling眉铆stics de les minories ling眉铆stiques: una guia pr脿ctica", publicat el 2017 amb el mandat del relator especial sobre q眉estions de minories, posa l'accent en el paper i la import脿ncia central de la llengua per a moltes minories i les obligacions de l'Estat al respecte. en virtut de diversos tractats i altres instruments de les Nacions Unides. La compet猫ncia de les comunitats aut貌nomes en els camps de l鈥檈ducaci贸, els serveis socials i altres 脿mbits ha comportat l鈥檃dopci贸 de diversos models i pr脿ctiques en l鈥櫭簊 de diferents idiomes en l鈥檈ducaci贸 i en l鈥檃cc茅s als serveis p煤blics, que reflecteixen contextos diversos, poblacions i expectatives.

51. Una preocupaci贸 que es va trobar en diverses ocasions en reunions amb organitzacions de la societat civil i d'altres de les Illes Balears, del Pa铆s Basc, de Catalunya, de Gal铆cia i de la Comunitat Valenciana va ser la sensaci贸, especialment en els 脿mbits de l'educaci贸, l'aplicaci贸 de la llei i el poder judicial. , que hi havia una desconnexi贸 entre l鈥檈stat reclamat de les lleng眉es cooficials i l鈥檃bast de l鈥櫭簊 real i de la implementaci贸 de la legislaci贸. Per exemple, es va assenyalar que els jutges i funcionaris de la llei, com la policia nacional, no estan sotmesos a cap requisit de coneixement d'un idioma cooficial fins i tot quan estiguin basats en una comunitat aut貌noma. S鈥檋a suggerit que aix貌 comporta un nombre important de greuges i frustraci贸 en algunes d鈥檃questes comunitats i a desafortunats malentesos i fins i tot denegaci贸 o discriminaci贸 d鈥檃cc茅s als serveis p煤blics.

52. Com a proposici贸 general, les obligacions dels drets humans dels Estats respecte a l鈥櫭簊 de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries i d鈥檃ltres idiomes en els serveis p煤blics, incl貌s en l鈥檈nsenyament p煤blic, es basen en la prohibici贸 de la discriminaci贸 per ra贸 d鈥檌diomes. Tal com s鈥檈xplica en el manual anteriorment esmentat, on les autoritats estatals poden utilitzar de manera pr脿ctica una llengua minorit脿ria determinada en un territori espec铆fic, i a falta d鈥檜na base raonable per excloure aquest 煤s d鈥檜na llengua minorit脿ria, en el dret internacional es prohibiria prohibir l鈥櫭簊 d鈥檜na llengua minoritzada en serveis administratius, judicials i altres serveis p煤blics. [11]

53. Espanya va avan莽ar enormement a partir dels anys setanta, en avan莽ar cap a una democr脿cia de ple dret, en eliminar les prohibicions existents anteriorment sobre l'煤s de lleng眉es minorit脿ries per part de les autoritats estatals, inclosa la prohibici贸 de noms personals en idiomes no castellans. Tot i aix貌, el Relator Especial va rebre l鈥檃ssessorament a les zones habitades principalment per minories ling眉铆stiques del Pa铆s Basc, Gal铆cia, Navarra, Comunitat Valenciana, Catalunya, Illes Balears i d鈥檃ltres que en els darrers anys la interpretaci贸 judicial i altres novetats generalment han provocat creixents obstacles a l鈥櫭簊 de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries en diversos serveis p煤blics.

54. Algunes de les q眉estions plantejades inclouen el feble 煤s de la llengua basca a les zones de Navarra amb grans concentracions de basc parlants. Si b茅 la legislaci贸 existent reconeix la cooficialitat del basc amb el castell脿 a les regions de parla basca de Navarra i a les zones de llengua mixta, sembla que l'煤s del basc no est脿 prou garantit ni implementat, segons els membres d'aquesta minoria ling眉铆stica . A Navarra, com en altres parts del pa铆s, els pronunciaments judicials han limitat els darrers anys l鈥櫭簊 perm猫s de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries. Aix貌 inclou una declaraci贸 del Tribunal Superior de Just铆cia de Navarra d'octubre de 2019 que va anul路lar les disposicions que requerien senyalitzaci贸 p煤blica i avisos en 脿mbits mixtes i no bascos i que deix茅s de banda qualsevol consideraci贸 del basc com a m猫rit en els llocs de treball a no ser absolutament necessari. L鈥檃rticle 231 de la llei org脿nica del poder judicial ha estat identificat com un dels obstacles a la plena aplicaci贸 per part d鈥橢spanya de les seves obligacions de drets humans en relaci贸 amb l鈥櫭簊 de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries cooficials, ja que estipula que en els procediments judicials, els jutges, magistrats, fiscals, secretaris i altres oficials han d鈥檜tilitzar el castell脿, i que les lleng眉es minorit脿ries cooficials nom茅s seran permeses si no hi ha objecte de part. En la majoria dels casos, aix貌 ha provocat que les autoritats judicials penals, civils i administratives procedeixin oficialment en castell脿. A m茅s, no es pot garantir que els membres del p煤blic que vulguin utilitzar una llengua minorit脿ria en aquests procediments tinguin cap magistrat o altres funcionaris directament capa莽os d鈥檈ntendre la llengua minorit脿ria si s鈥檜tilitz茅s. Si b茅, en teoria, els individus encara poden utilitzar una llengua cooficial minorit脿ria, fins i tot quan el castell脿 茅s la llengua que s鈥檜tilitza per a les actuacions, els informes consistents en diferents parts del pa铆s indiquen que se鈥檒s diu simplement als individus que compleixin l鈥櫭簊 escollit de la llengua nacional. Segons el relator especial, aquest obstacle obert a l鈥櫭簊 d鈥檜na llengua cooficial minorit脿ria provoca preocupacions sobre el compliment per part de l鈥檈stat espanyol de les seves obligacions de drets humans, en particular la prohibici贸 de la discriminaci贸, tal com es recull al manual sobre drets ling眉铆stics de minories ling眉铆stiques i la Declaraci贸 sobre els drets de les persones que pertanyen a minories nacionals o 猫tniques, religioses i ling眉铆stiques.

55. A la vista del que semblen impediments coherents a l鈥櫭簊 de lleng眉es cooficials que es puguin considerar que s贸n discriminat貌ries en algunes comunitats aut貌nomes, el relator especial convida el Govern a plantejar modificar l鈥檃rticle 231 de la llei org脿nica de la judicatura. per garantir un dret m茅s directament exercible d鈥檜tilitzar conjuntament les lleng眉es cooficials minorit脿ries amb el castell脿, de manera que es puguin realitzar efectivament els procediments davant les autoritats judicials penals, civils i administratives en ambdues lleng眉es cooficials.

56. El relator especial es va informar de nombroses q眉estions relacionades amb l'煤s de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries en les comunitats aut貌nomes. A Gal铆cia, la legislaci贸 i diverses iniciatives que promouen la visibilitat i la posici贸 del gallec semblen inicialment impressionants, i les autoritats de Gal铆cia han de ser encomiades en aquest sentit. Tot i aix铆, sembla que molts no s鈥檃pliquen efectivament i el Relator Especial va rebre informes consistents de membres de la minoria gallega que no podien utilitzar la seva llengua, malgrat l鈥檃parent dret de fer-ho amb els poders p煤blics de la regi贸. Al路legacions similars es van sentir en altres comunitats aut貌nomes, com ara Navarra. A m茅s, les persones que pertanyen a minories ling眉铆stiques que viuen fora de comunitats aut貌nomes on les seves lleng眉es s贸n cooficials tenen especialment dif铆cil utilitzar el seu idioma en la majoria d鈥櫭爉bits de la vida p煤blica.

57. El tema de la llengua educativa i, per tal de trobar l'equilibri adequat, 茅s especialment sensible i desafiant a Espanya. Aix貌 es deu en part a recents pronunciaments judicials que han posat 猫mfasi en la destacada posici贸 constitucional de l'煤nica llengua oficial nacional, que, d'acord amb l'article 3 de la Constituci贸, tots els espanyols tenen el deure de saber i el dret d'utilitzar i qu猫 poden. implicar en relaci贸 al dret a ser ensenyat en castell脿 en contraposici贸 a les lleng眉es cooficials. Tamb茅 茅s en part perqu猫 les pol铆tiques educatives, incloses les relacionades amb el mitj脿 d鈥檈nsenyament, s贸n de la compet猫ncia de les comunitats constituents del pa铆s, amb 6 de les 17 comunitats aut貌nomes que tenen idiomes cooficials a m茅s del castell脿. Aquesta multiplicitat de lleng眉es en diferents regions ha donat lloc a diversos enfocaments educatius, donant lloc a algunes afirmacions que les lleng眉es minorit脿ries cooficials no s鈥檜tilitzen en la mesura que haurien d鈥檈star a l鈥檈ducaci贸 i les contrarevistes relacionades i, fins i tot, afirmacions d鈥檃lgunes parts que l鈥櫭簊 de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries en l鈥檈ducaci贸 pot, en determinats contextos, contravenir la Constituci贸. El 2015, per exemple, el Suprem d鈥橢spanya es va pronunciar contra el model d鈥檌mmersi贸 escolar catal脿, cosa que va indicar que les escoles de Catalunya havien d鈥檈nsenyar almenys un 25 per cent de les seves mat猫ries en castell脿, incloent almenys una mat猫ria b脿sica.

58. El sistema escolar catal脿 es basa en un enfocament d鈥檌mmersi贸 ling眉铆stica per a tots els nens que privilegien el catal脿 com a llengua d鈥檈nsenyament principal, per貌 no exclusiva; s'afirma que tots els nens del sistema adquireixen efectivament flu茂desa ambdues lleng眉es cooficials. S鈥檋a suggerit que si hi hagu茅s menys exposici贸 al catal脿, molts nens i nenes d鈥檈ntorns castellanoparlants no aprendrien el catal脿 adequadament, ja que 茅s una llengua minorit脿ria, mentre que el castell脿 segueix sent una llengua majorit脿ria al pa铆s i per tant es garanteix l鈥檈xposici贸 di脿ria i fins i tot. prestigi. L鈥橭rganitzaci贸 de les Nacions Unides per a l鈥檈ducaci贸, la ci猫ncia i la cultura (UNESCO) i altres organitzacions internacionals han elogiat l鈥檈nfocament catal脿 d鈥檌mmersi贸.

59. El relator especial ha rebut nombrosos informes de grups minoritaris que afirmaven altres dos grans 脿mbits de preocupaci贸 en l'educaci贸. A les comunitats aut貌nomes de Catalunya i de les Illes Balears els preocupa que hi hagi estat una erosi贸 gradual dels enfocaments educatius existents que, fins ara, es reivindica, oferien models d鈥檌mmersi贸 no segregats amb gran 猫xit en aconseguir un biling眉isme efectiu entre la majoria de nens. . En algunes altres comunitats aut貌nomes, com Gal铆cia i Navarra, es va argumentar que els sistemes educatius existents eren insuficients per garantir efica莽ment que els nens minoritaris podrien ser educats en la llengua minorit脿ria cooficial.

60. Un altre punt de preocupaci贸 per al relator especial era l鈥檃bs猫ncia de dades emp铆riques actuals sobre l鈥檌mpacte de diferents models educatius mitjan莽ant m猫todes d鈥檈nsenyament immersius, biling眉es o pluriling眉es. Aquestes dades s'havien recollit a tot Espanya abans del 2010. Aquesta manca de recollida de dades pot estar alimentant els sentiments que les autoritats estatals no poden complir plenament les seves obligacions respecte als drets de les minories en mat猫ria d'煤s de la llengua en l'educaci贸. Tamb茅 pot estar creant preocupaci贸 entre els pares d鈥檃lumnes no minoritaris que consideren que poden estar sotmesos a r猫gims educatius nocius per a l鈥櫭▁it acad猫mic dels fills.

61. El relator especial reitera que, per dissipar aquestes preocupacions i avaluar adequadament l'impacte de diversos models educatius amb diferents lleng眉es cooficials i minorit脿ries, el Govern d'Espanya hauria de restablir la recopilaci贸 de dades nacionals sobre l'impacte de diferents formacions. models.

62. El manual del 2017 sobre drets ling眉铆stics de les minories ling眉铆stiques va posar de manifest la import脿ncia de proporcionar l鈥檈ducaci贸 en una llengua minoritzada. Quan sigui practicable, les lleng眉es minorit脿ries s鈥檋an d鈥檜tilitzar com a mitj脿 d鈥檌nstrucci贸 seguint principis generals de proporcionalitat. Cap model educatiu en concret 茅s ideal ni possiblement sigui adequat per a tots els diferents contextos de poblacions locals o dels estats implicats. No obstant aix貌, el manual exposa principis generals, entre ells els seg眉ents:

Si hi ha una demanda num猫rica suficientment elevada, els serveis d鈥檈ducaci贸 p煤blica s鈥檋an de proporcionar en una llengua minoritzada al grau adequat, a grans trets, seguint un enfocament proporcional. Inclou tots els nivells d鈥檈ducaci贸 p煤blica des de la llar d鈥檌nfants fins a la universitat. Si la demanda, la concentraci贸 de parlants o altres factors fan que aix貌 no sigui factible, les autoritats estatals haurien de garantir, sempre que sigui possible, la disponibilitat de l鈥檈nsenyament de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries. A m茅s, tots els nens han de tenir l鈥檕portunitat d鈥檃prendre l鈥檌dioma (s) oficial (s). [12]

63. El manual tamb茅 deixa clar que:

Les difer猫ncies d鈥檌diomes no s鈥檋an d鈥檜tilitzar com a excusa per segregar els estudiants segons les l铆nies 猫tniques o racials en l鈥檈ducaci贸. Quan est脿 obert a tots els que comparteixen un mateix idioma, independentment de l鈥櫭╰nia o la ra莽a, l鈥櫭簊 de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries com a mitj脿 d鈥檈nsenyament no 茅s ni una segregaci贸 discriminat貌ria ni imperceptible.

Per afavorir la toler脿ncia i la inclusi贸, tots els estudiants haurien de con猫ixer-se m煤tuament: no s鈥檋a d鈥檌mpedir que les minories entenguin la cultura i la llengua de la comunitat nacional en el seu conjunt ni que participin en les seves activitats, i la majoria tamb茅 s鈥檋an de donar oportunitats similars en relaci贸. a les cultures i lleng眉es minorit脿ries. [13]

64. Cadascuna de les comunitats aut貌nomes t茅 establerts diferents enfocaments i models educatius per a l'煤s de les lleng眉es minorit脿ries com a mitj脿 d'ensenyament o per a la seva inclusi贸 com a mat猫ria. Moltes comunitats aut貌nomes implementen m茅s d鈥檜n model dins de la seva pr貌pia jurisdicci贸. Queda fora de l鈥櫭爉bit del present informe detallar cadascun d鈥檃quests enfocaments per determinar quina pot ser o no coherent amb les obligacions internacionals d鈥橢spanya respecte als drets humans de les minories. El relator especial reitera, per貌, que independentment del model o enfocament existent, els membres de les minories ling眉铆stiques tenen dret a l鈥櫭簊 de la seva llengua a l鈥檈ducaci贸 en la mesura que aquest 煤s sigui raonable i proporcional, de manera que els nens puguin, sempre que sigui pr脿ctic. , adquireixen efectivament flu茂desa en la llengua pr貌pia i en la llengua nacional d鈥檜n estat.

65. A la vista dels felicitacions que ha rebut Catalunya de la UNESCO i d鈥檃ltres comentaristes internacionals pel seu model d鈥檌mmersi贸 amb gran 猫xit, el relator especial recomana que les autoritats espanyoles, inclosa a nivell de comunitats aut貌nomes, revisin qualsevol mesura que pugui reduir la proporci贸 d鈥檈nsenyament. que es porta a terme en llengua minoritzada catalana a les escoles p煤bliques.

66. El relator especial recomana tamb茅 que les autoritats espanyoles assegurin que hi hagi recursos adequats, professors, personal de suport i infraestructures perqu猫 els nens de les comunitats aut貌nomes amb poblacions significatives pertanyents a minories ling眉铆stiques tinguin la possibilitat d鈥檈studiar en els seus propis idiomes. Malgrat l鈥檈xist猫ncia, en molts casos, de legislaci贸 que reconegui aquest dret, en la pr脿ctica dels individus a Navarra, les Illes Balears, la Comunitat Valenciana i Gal铆cia han indicat que s鈥檈nfronten a obstacles pr脿ctics o altres limitacions per exercir aquest dret. Per exemple, es va cridar l鈥檃tenci贸 del Relator Especial que algunes escoles p煤bliques de les Illes Balears havien optat per un model triling眉e (castell脿, catal脿 i angl猫s), que redu茂a significativament l鈥檈nsenyament en la llengua minorit脿ria cooficial.

C. Participaci贸 en la vida p煤blica

67. El relator especial s鈥檜neix a col路legues que ja han manifestat preocupacions greus sobre les restriccions, les acusacions penals i els judicis i sent猫ncies posteriors de personatges pol铆tics i manifestants pertanyents a la minoria catalana. El relator especial sobre la promoci贸 i la protecci贸 del dret a la llibertat d鈥檕pini贸 i expressi贸 va emetre una declaraci贸 el 6 d鈥檃bril de 2018 en qu猫 instava les autoritats espanyoles a abstenir-se de perseguir l鈥檃cusaci贸 criminal de rebel路li贸 contra aquestes figures pol铆tiques i manifestants. [14] Va indicar que aquests c脿rrecs per fets que no impliquessin viol猫ncia o incitaci贸 a la viol猫ncia podrien interferir amb la llibertat d'expressi贸, incloent la protesta p煤blica i la dissid猫ncia pac铆fica. El relator especial sobre q眉estions de minories comparteix les preocupacions pel que fa al senyal que aix貌 d贸na a les minories de manera m茅s general. La dissid猫ncia pol铆tica no violenta per part de les minories no hauria de donar lloc, com assenyala el relator especial sobre la promoci贸 i la protecci贸 del dret a la llibertat d鈥檕pini贸 i expressi贸 a les acusacions penals, ja que aquestes restriccions nom茅s s鈥檋an d鈥檌mposar quan siguin estrictament necess脿ries. i proporcional. El relator especial en q眉estions de minories assenyala que les 12 persones condemnades per llargs per铆odes de pres贸 en relaci贸 amb el refer猫ndum d鈥檕ctubre de 2017 s贸n membres de la minoria catalana.

68. El relator especial en q眉estions de minories tamb茅 est脿 d鈥檃cord amb les conclusions recents extretes del Grup de treball sobre la detenci贸 arbitr脿ria en el seu dictamen n煤m. 6/2019, sobre la detenci贸 prolongada de dos membres d鈥檕rganitzacions de la societat civil (expresident de l鈥橝ssemblea Nacional Catalana , Jordi S谩nchez, i president d鈥櫭抦nium Cultural, Jordi Cuixart) i l鈥檈xvicepresident de Catalunya, Oriol Junqueras, acusats de sedici贸 per una candidatura fallida per obtenir la independ猫ncia catalana d鈥橢spanya el 2017. Assenyala la convicci贸 del Grup de Treball que la el prop貌sit de les acusacions penals contra aquests individus era intimidar-les a causa de la seva visi贸 pol铆tica. [15] Tamb茅 fa notar les conclusions similars de nombroses organitzacions internacionals, com Amnistia Internacional, Human Rights Watch i la Comissi贸 Internacional de Juristes, en relaci贸 amb els fets del 2017, la persecuci贸 posterior de membres del govern de Catalunya i membres de civils. la societat i l鈥櫭簊 d鈥檜na for莽a excessiva per part de la policia per trencar activitats pac铆fiques.

69. El relator especial observa que aquestes q眉estions van sorgir de l'expressi贸 dels punts de vista de la minoria catalana -i d'altres- en relaci贸 amb la seva participaci贸 i estatus continuats en la pol铆tica d'Espanya. Tamb茅 es va assabentar de les den煤ncies a Catalunya que el discurs d鈥檕di contra els catalans com a minoria havia aparegut cada cop m茅s a mitjans socials i altres com a conseq眉猫ncia dels fets recents. Els pol铆tics i altres membres de la regi贸 havien comen莽at a pintar els catalans com una amena莽a i els tra茂dors als quals s'havia de tractar greument, de vegades amb un llenguatge violent.

70. Segons el relator especial, al costat de les observacions anteriors exposades dels seus col路legues i d鈥檃ltres organitzacions, Espanya t茅 obligacions legals per protegir els drets humans de les minories, inclosa la minoria catalana, especialment en relaci贸 amb la llibertat d鈥檈xpressi贸, inclosa la pol铆tica. expressi贸, d鈥檃cord amb l鈥檃rticle 19 del Pacte internacional de drets civils i pol铆tics; la llibertat de reuni贸 i d'associaci贸 pac铆fica, d'acord amb l'article 11 de la Convenci贸 per a la protecci贸 dels drets humans i les llibertats fonamentals (Convenci贸 Europea de Drets Humans) i els articles 21 i 22 del Pacte; i participaci贸 en la vida p煤blica, d鈥檃cord amb l鈥檃rticle 25 del Pacte.

D. Comunitat sorda i 煤s de lleng眉es de signes

71. Els membres de les minories de llengua de signes espanyoles i de llengua de signes catalanes han experimentat un aven莽 considerable a Espanya des de l'adopci贸 de la legislaci贸 el 2007 (Llei n煤m. 27/2007) que preveu la base legal i les condicions per utilitzar la llengua de signes a les institucions estatals i serveis. Les actituds tamb茅 han canviat: una vegada considerada simplement com una eina per compensar una discapacitat, la llengua de signes ha comen莽at a ser reconeguda com un llenguatge en ple funcionament. Tanmateix, la legislaci贸 nacional actual continua reflectint una 鈥渓lengua de signes com a eina鈥 i no una posici贸 de 鈥渓lengua adequada鈥.

72. Un canvi en la legislaci贸 seria benvingut, ja que, malgrat la llei de 2007, encara hi ha retic猫ncies en algunes escoles a reservar recursos per proporcionar als nens sords amb l'ensenyament en llengua de signes i la implementaci贸 de la llei encara sembla feble.

73. El relator especial recomana canvis legislatius per tal de garantir que es reconegui amb m茅s claredat la llengua de signes espanyola i la llengua de signes catalana com a lleng眉es de ple dret i tamb茅 recomana que les autoritats espanyoles augmentin recursos per augmentar la disponibilitat d鈥檌nstal路lacions educatives biling眉es per a nens sords i serveis p煤blics en tots dos idiomes. Tamb茅 insta el Govern a recon猫ixer les dues lleng眉es oficials en l'脿mbit nacional.

VII. Conclusi贸 i recomanacions

74. El relator especial en q眉estions de minories felicita el Govern d'Espanya pels enormes aven莽os que ha fet en el seu cam铆 cap a una societat m茅s inclusiva i tolerant des dels anys 70. Felicita les autoritats espanyoles pels aven莽os que han fet per adaptar-se i reflectir la diversitat ling眉铆stica, religiosa i 猫tnica del pa铆s i pel seu esfor莽 per recon猫ixer millor les contribucions inestimables de totes les seves poblacions components, incloses les gitanes. Tot i aix铆, encara queda marge de millora, especialment per fer front als greus obstacles que continuen enfrontant els migrants i les persones de descend猫ncia africana, aix铆 com el que sembla un augment del nacionalisme xen貌fob dirigit a aquelles i altres minories, incloses les comunitats hist貌riques com els catalans. .

75. Les seg眉ents recomanacions estan destinades a ajudar Espanya en els seus esfor莽os per abordar millor les q眉estions de les minories i complir m茅s plenament les seves obligacions en relaci贸 amb els drets humans de les minories.

76. El Govern hauria de replantejar l鈥檃dopci贸 d鈥檜na llei integral contra el racisme, la discriminaci贸 racial, la xenof貌bia i la intoler脿ncia relacionada, incl貌s discurs d鈥檕di publicat a Internet i en altres mitjans de comunicaci贸. En particular, el relator especial recomana que el Govern prengui m茅s accions per contrarestar l鈥檃ugment del discurs d鈥檕di, el discurs xen貌fob i misog铆nic i el desallotjament de minories entre pol铆tics i l铆ders pol铆tics.

77. El Govern hauria de revisar i modificar la legislaci贸 i altres disposicions relacionades amb la prohibici贸 de la discriminaci贸 per tal que reflecteixin els motius continguts en els principals tractats internacionals de drets humans, 茅s a dir, qualsevol 脿mbit com ara ra莽a, color, sexe, idioma, religi贸, pol铆tica o una altra opini贸, origen nacional o social, propietat, naixement o un altre estatus.

78. El relator especial recomana que els governs d'Espanya i de les comunitats aut貌nomes facin una revisi贸 integral dels llibres de text escolars per incorporar retrats m茅s inclusius i positius de la diversitat del pa铆s, aix铆 com campanyes de sensibilitzaci贸 i altres activitats per a la celebraci贸 del p煤blic en general. la rica associaci贸 del pa铆s amb moltes cultures, idiomes i religions i que els reconeix com a part integrant de la moderna societat espanyola. A m茅s, el Govern hauria de dur a terme campanyes de sensibilitzaci贸 p煤blica i mitjans de gran visibilitat per continuar fomentant una societat inclusiva formada per moltes cultures, religions i idiomes diferents per intentar contrarestar els augments de la parla d鈥檕di i la intoler脿ncia contra les minories, incloses les negatives. estereotipat de gitanos, migrants i persones d鈥檕rigen afric脿.

79. El relator especial convida el Govern a restablir, com a part del curr铆culum de les escoles p煤bliques, el curs de ciutadania i drets humans com a un pas per promoure una societat encara m茅s inclusiva i tolerant a trav茅s de l'educaci贸.

80. El relator especial recomana que el Govern d'Espanya adopti una nova estrat猫gia nacional d'integraci贸 de gitanos que inclogui mesures m茅s detallades, incloses mesures per a la seva aplicaci贸, per evitar i reduir la concentraci贸 d'alumnes gitanos en escoles segregades de facto, aix铆 com realitzar una revisi贸 identificar els establiments on encara es produeixi una concentraci贸. Insta el Govern a dirigir l'atenci贸 per millorar la situaci贸 dels gitanos no espanyols i refor莽ar les mesures per garantir que els gitanos no espanyols puguin accedir als serveis p煤blics sense cap discriminaci贸.

81. Com a part d鈥檜na nova estrat猫gia nacional d鈥檌ntegraci贸 de gitanos, el Govern hauria d鈥檌ncloure mesures per a un millor reconeixement de les cultures i identitats gitanes, incl貌s pel que fa a l鈥檈nsenyament de la hist貌ria dels gitanos i proporcionar m茅s oportunitats d鈥檈studiar idiomes gitanos a les escoles on els estudiants gitanos estan inscrits .

82. El relator especial recomana fermament que el Govern reculli, recopili, analitzi, publiqui i difongui dades estad铆stiques fiables, respectant plenament els est脿ndards de protecci贸 de dades rellevants, desglossats segons les l铆nies 猫tniques, ling眉铆stiques i religioses a partir de l鈥檃utoidentificaci贸 volunt脿ria, per tenir eines fiables per al desenvolupament de pol铆tiques i mesures m茅s efectives per a la protecci贸 i la promoci贸 dels drets humans de les minories.

83. El relator especial insta el Govern a restablir la col路lecci贸 de dades nacionals sobre l鈥檌mpacte de diferents models educatius, m茅s precisament la recollida per part de l鈥檌nstitut d鈥檃valuaci贸 de dades sobre nivells de compet猫ncia en l鈥檃dquisici贸 de flu茂desa en castell脿 i idiomes cooficials a tot arreu. el pa铆s, per ajudar a dissipar les preocupacions sobre l'impacte de diversos models educatius amb diferents lleng眉es cooficials i minorit脿ries.

84. El Govern hauria d鈥檃doptar canvis legislatius perqu猫 la llengua de signes castellana i la llengua de signes catalana siguin m茅s clarament reconegudes com a lleng眉es de ple dret. Les autoritats espanyoles haurien d鈥檃ugmentar els recursos per ampliar la disponibilitat d鈥檌nstal路lacions educatives biling眉es per a nens sords i serveis p煤blics en ambdues lleng眉es de signes i recon猫ixer les dues com a lleng眉es oficials a nivell nacional.

85. El ponent especial convida el Govern a modificar l'article 231 de la llei org脿nica sobre el poder judicial per tal de garantir un dret m茅s directament exercible d'utilitzar una llengua cooficial minorit脿ria conjuntament amb el castell脿 per tal de procedir al procediment penal, civil i administratiu. les autoritats es poden celebrar efectivament en els dos idiomes cooficials.

86. Les autoritats espanyoles haurien de revisar qualsevol mesura o pr脿ctica que pugui reduir la proporci贸 d鈥檈nsenyament que s鈥檌mparteix en idiomes minoritzats a les escoles p煤bliques.

87. El relator especial recomana que les autoritats espanyoles assegurin que hi hagi recursos adequats, professors, personal de suport i infraestructures perqu猫 els nens de les comunitats aut貌nomes amb poblacions significatives pertanyents a minories ling眉铆stiques tinguin la possibilitat d鈥檈studiar en els seus propis idiomes.

88. Les minories tenen dret a expressar lliurement i pac铆ficament la seva opini贸 sobre la seva posici贸 dins de la llei espanyola. El Govern hauria de revisar, com a prioritat, la definici贸 legal del delicte de sedici贸 per garantir que no criminalitzi indegudament els actes de desobedi猫ncia civil pac铆fica o imposi c脿stigs desproporcionats per altres accions relacionades amb l'exercici de les minories dels drets a llibertat d鈥檈xpressi贸 i llibertat de reuni贸 pac铆fica. En els assumptes en curs que impliquen persones que exerceixen els seus drets democr脿tics a la participaci贸 en la vida p煤blica i pol铆tica, el Relator Especial insta el Govern a complir el principi de legalitat i const脿ncia respecte dels delictes la definici贸 i la interpretaci贸 d鈥檃quests poden contravenir els est脿ndards internacionals de drets humans acceptats per Espanya. .

89. El relator especial reitera la seva satisfacci贸 per la voluntat del Govern d鈥檌niciar-se en el di脿leg, la cooperaci贸 i l鈥檃cci贸 per abordar els problemes i millorar les pr脿ctiques i pol铆tiques relacionades amb els drets humans de les minories. Espera que el seu informe recolzi el Govern en aquest proc茅s i manifesta la seva voluntat i disponibilitat per ajudar en aquest important esfor莽.


* El resum de l'informe s'est脿 distribuint en tots els idiomes oficials. L鈥檌nforme mateix, que s鈥檃djunta al resum, es fa circular nom茅s en llengua d鈥檈nviament i nom茅s en castell脿.

** El present informe es va enviar un cop transcorregut el termini per incloure la informaci贸 m茅s recent.

[1] L'abs猫ncia de dades desagregades significa que aquesta 茅s nom茅s una estimaci贸; els n煤meros reals es poden situar entre 500.000 i 1 mili贸.

[2] Tot i que l'esborrany de l'informe en angl猫s es compartia amb antelaci贸 amb el Govern d'Espanya, el Relator Especial no va ser informat en aquell moment que s'havia de proporcionar la traducci贸 a l'espanyol amb el seu esborrany d'informe. El Relator Especial voldria expressar el seu agra茂ment pel fet que, malgrat aquestes circumst脿ncies, el Govern d'Espanya ha compartit les seves inquietuds i opinions respecte al present informe. Aquests comentaris es troben en un addendum a l'informe.

[3] Centre d鈥橧nvestigacions Sociol貌giques, 鈥淢acrobar贸metro d鈥檕ctubre de 2019. Eleccions generales preelectorals 2019鈥, estudi n煤m. 3263 (octubre de 2019), p. 38.

[4] Comissi贸 Europea, Informe de pa铆s: No discriminaci贸 - Espanya 2019 (Luxemburg, Uni贸 Europea), p. 6. Disponible a www.equalitylaw.eu/downloads/4963-spain-country-report-non-discrimination-2019-pdf-1-32-mb.

[5] Ibid., P脿g. 9.

[6] Vegeu https://asistenciavictimasdiscriminacion.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/TRIPTICO-Folleto-Servicio-de-atencio%CC%81n-INGLES-web1.pdf.

[7] Comissi贸 Europea contra el Racisme i la Intoler脿ncia, "Informe ECRI sobre Espanya (cinqu猫 seguiment

cicle 鈥(27 de febrer de 2018), p. 15.

[8] Vegeu www.mscbs.gob.es/ssi/familiasInfancia/PoblacionGitana/docs/tripticos/TripticoCastellano.pdf.

[9] Per exemple, el relator especial sobre formes contempor脿nies de racisme, discriminaci贸 racial, xenof貌bia i intoler脿ncia relacionada. Vegeu A / HRC / 23/56 / Add.2.

[10] Fiscalia, circular n煤m. 7/2019 de 14 de maig. Disponible a www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-2019-7771 (en castell脿).

[11] Relator especial en q眉estions de minories, 鈥淒rets ling眉铆stics de les minories ling眉铆stiques: guia pr脿ctica鈥 (Ginebra, 2017), p. 23.

[12] Relator especial en q眉estions de minories, 鈥淒rets ling眉铆stics鈥, p. 16.

[13] Ibid., P脿g. 19.

[14] Disponible a www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=22928&LangID=E.

[15] Dictamen n煤m. 6/2019, par. 119.

______________________________________________________________________________

A/HRC/43/47/Add.1

Advance Edited Version

Distr.: General

9 March 2020

Original: English





Human Rights Council

Forty-third session

24 February鈥20 March 2020

Agenda item 3

Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil,
political, economic, social and cultural rights,
including the right to development

Visit to Spain

Report of the Special Rapporteur on minority issues*,**

Summary

The Special Rapporteur on minority issues visited Spain from 14 to 25 January 2019. In the present report, he makes a number of recommendations and observations with a view to assisting the Government and other relevant actors in their efforts to address the challenges in implementing the human rights of minorities in Spain.

In the report, the Special Rapporteur also looks at positive developments, and focuses on areas of particular significance regarding minorities, such as education, the use of minority languages, housing, employment, administrative and judicial services, access to health and other public services, the participation of minorities in public life, and efforts to combat hate speech and other forms of intolerance directed at minorities, including islamophobia and anti-Gypsyism. The report also includes a section on the deaf community and the use of sign languages in Spain.

Annex

Report of the Special Rapporteur on minority issues on his visit to Spain

I.聽聽聽 Introduction

1.聽聽 The Special Rapporteur on minority issues conducted, at the invitation of the Government, an official visit to Spain from 14 to 25 January 2019. He visited the capital, Madrid, and the localities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Santiago de Compostela, Seville and Vitoria-Gasteiz in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia. He consulted widely with a number of government representatives and stakeholders, both national and local, including senior government officials from the Ministry of the Presidency, Relations with the Cortes and Equality, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the European Union and Cooperation, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, the Ministry of Labour, Migration and Social Security, the ministry responsible for territorial policy and public function, the Ministry of Culture and Sport and the Ministry of Health, Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare. He also met with the Prosecutor-General and members of his office, members of the Supreme Court, members of the Senate and of the Congress of Deputies, and the Ombudsperson and members of his teams. He was also able to meet with authorities of, as well as ombudsmen and members of their teams in, the four autonomous communities visited.

2.聽聽 In addition, the Special Rapporteur consulted with a wide spectrum of civil society organizations working on issues affecting minorities. He also met with members of minority communities, such as the Roma, Asturian, Balearic, Basque, Catalan, Galician and Valencian communities, and their representatives; representatives from Muslim and Jewish minorities; migrants from Morocco; and others. Of the members of minority communities the Special Rapporteur met, members and representatives of the Roma community represented, by far, the largest proportion. This was partly because the Roma population in Spain, estimated at 750,000,[1] is estimated to be the largest population of Roma in Western Europe, but also because Roma remain among the country鈥檚 most marginalized and vulnerable people, with anti-Gypsyism still widespread and deeply entrenched in social and cultural attitudes and institutional practices. He also met with defenders of minority rights, representatives of minority women and youth, as well as community workers.

3.聽聽 In his 2019 annual report to the General Assembly (A/74/160), the Special Rapporteur presented a study on the concept of a minority in the United Nations system. As a result of the study, he stated that he would use and promote, as part of his mandate to promote the full and effective realization of the human rights of minorities and in carrying out his activities under the mandate, the following concept of a minority:

An ethnic, religious or linguistic minority is any group of persons which constitutes less than half of the population in the entire territory of a State whose members share common characteristics of culture, religion or language, or a combination of any of these. A person can freely belong to an ethnic, religious or linguistic minority without any requirement of citizenship, residence, official recognition or any other status (ibid., para. 53).

4.聽聽 Consistent with this concept, and as announced at the 2017 Forum on Minority Issues, deaf and hard-of-hearing persons who use sign languages are considered to be members of a linguistic minority. Catalan, Basque and other linguistic groups who may constitute a numerical majority in some regions of the country, but remain numerically less than half of the population in the entirety of the State, are also considered minorities pursuant to this working definition.

5.聽聽 The Special Rapporteur thanks the Government of Spain for the constructive spirit and cooperation shown during the visit and its readiness to engage in an open dialogue to better understand and assess the human rights situation of minorities in the country. He also expresses his gratitude to the numerous national and international non-governmental organizations that provided information and met with him.[2]

II.聽聽聽 Visit objectives

6.聽聽 The objectives of the visit were to identify, in a spirit of cooperation and constructive dialogue, good practices in, and possible obstacles to, the promotion and protection of the human rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities in Spain in conformity with the mandate. More specifically, the Special Rapporteur aimed at proposing possible ways of addressing existing gaps, identifying possible improvements to existing legislation, policies and practices and, in particular, identifying pathways for the effective implementation by Spain of its international obligations in relation to the human rights of minorities.

7.聽聽 The overall aim was to examine existing legislation, policies and practices for the protection and promotion of the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities. The Special Rapporteur also wished to explore aspects pertaining to minorities in areas of particular significance, such as education, the use of minority languages, housing, employment, administrative and judicial services, access to health and other public services, the participation of minorities in the political process, and efforts to combat hate speech and other forms of intolerance directed at minorities, including islamophobia and anti-Gypsyism. He also wanted to get a better sense of the normative framework governing human rights in general, and particularly those of minorities, including the latest amendments to relevant legislation, acts and other mechanisms that have been established in that regard. These aspects are key to better understanding the barriers to inclusion experienced by some minority communities, and why some minorities may be distrustful of State public entities and mechanisms or have grievances in relation to what they perceive as the negation of their human rights or rejection, based on long-standing prejudices or bias.

III.聽聽聽 General context

8.聽聽 With a population of over 46 million, Spain presents a rich tapestry of languages, cultures and religions.

9.聽聽 The official national Spanish language (Castilian) is spoken by almost all Spaniards either as their first or second language. In 11 of the 17 autonomous communities, Castilian is the sole official language. In the remaining six autonomous communities (Catalonia, Balearic Islands, Galicia, Basque Country, Navarra and the Valencian Community), Castilian is a co-official language along with one or more of the following languages: Catalan, Basque, Valencian, Galician and Occitan (Aranese). The minority co-official languages are spoken by almost 30 per cent of the population of Spain. Furthermore, the linguistic diversity of Spain is further enriched by the array of languages spoken by the different immigrant communities, including Arabic, Romanian, English, German, French, Russian, Portuguese and Italian. While there are no reliable data on the precise number of users of sign languages (Spanish Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language) in the country, some estimate it to be between 100,000 and 150,000.

10.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 A clear majority of Spaniards consider themselves to be Catholics, although in a recent study 46.8 per cent of respondents self-identified as non-practising Catholics, as compared to the 21.5 per cent of respondents who self-identified as practising Catholics.[3] Many people who are minorities in terms of religion or belief self-identify as atheist (12.5 per cent) or agnostic (7.3 per cent). Other religious minorities represent much smaller proportions of the Spanish population. Recent waves of immigration have led to an increasing number of Muslims and non-Catholic Christians, especially Protestants, with Islam constituting the country鈥檚 second-largest religious grouping. It is suggested that almost 2 million Muslims may be living in Spain, making up about 4 per cent of the country鈥檚 total population. Many are immigrants from North African countries; almost half are Spanish citizens. Jews in Spain comprise less than 0.2 per cent of the population, or some 40,000 people.

IV.聽聽聽 Legal and institutional framework

A.聽聽聽聽 International framework

11.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Spain is a party to all core international human rights treaties, with the exception of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. It has a comprehensive legal framework for the protection of human rights and a well-developed institutional architecture. Furthermore, Spain has been a party to the Council of Europe鈥檚 Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities since 1 September 1995.

12.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur notes that during the second cycle of the universal periodic review, Spain accepted a number of recommendations with regard to measures combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related informs of intolerance, ethnic and racial profiling by law enforcement, and discrimination against minorities in all areas, including in the field of employment, education and housing, as well as recommendations on the human rights situation and social inclusion of Roma, on protection and promotion of the rights of religious minorities, and on access to justice and to effective remedies by persons belonging to minorities (see A/HRC/29/8 and Add.1).

B.聽聽聽聽 Constitutional and legislative framework

13.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Non-discrimination is enshrined in article 14 of the Constitution, which stipulates that Spaniards are equal before the law and may not in any way be discriminated against on account of birth, race, sex, religion, opinion or any other personal or social condition or circumstance.

14.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Protection is guaranteed for a large number of human rights under Title I of the Constitution, including freedom of religion or belief (art. 16), freedom of expression (art. 20), freedoms of assembly and of association (arts. 21鈥22), access to justice (art. 24), the right to education (art. 27), the right to adequate housing (art. 47) and guarantees for the rights of persons with disabilities (art. 49).

15.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Law No. 62/2003 of 30 December 2003 transposed into national law Directives No. 2000/43 and No. 2000/78 of the Council of the European Union on non-discrimination. It covers all grounds of discrimination and includes definitions for both direct and indirect discrimination, although in some cases one or more grounds are not specifically listed in an individual provision.

16.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 In Organic Law No. 4/2000 of 11 January 2000 on the rights and freedoms of aliens in Spain and their social integration, discrimination is defined as any act against a foreigner on the basis of race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin or religious beliefs and practices.

17.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 While all of the above-mentioned laws may, when broadly interpreted, cover all grounds of discrimination, they do not specifically include language 鈥 an omission that is potentially inconsistent with a number of international treaty obligations for which this characteristic is fundamental.

18.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Other important legislative developments include the adoption of Law No. 27/2007 of 23 October 2007, in which sign languages and speech aid systems were recognized, and Royal Legislative Decree No. 1/2013 of 29 November 2013, by which the general law on the rights of persons with disabilities and their social inclusion was adopted.[4]

C.聽聽聽聽 Institutional framework

19.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Law No. 62/2003, as amended by Law No. 15/2014 of 16 September of 2014 on the rationalization of the public sector and other measures of administrative reform, provided for the establishment of the Council for the Elimination of Racial or Ethnic Discrimination. The Council became operational on 28 October 2009.[5] It is administratively attached to the Ministry of Presidency, Relations with the Cortes and Equality through the Institute for Women and Equal Opportunities, and is a collegiate body that includes representatives of national, regional and local administrations, social partners and a number of civil society organizations. Operating independently, it provides assistance to victims of discrimination, conducts research and publishes reports, offers mediation and files complaints with the Ombudsperson, public authorities, inspection services and consumer organizations. The Council helped in the establishment of a network to provide assistance for victims of racial or ethnic discrimination; support services are provided by eight specialized organizations with offices in different regions.[6] However, there are concerns about the Council鈥檚 ability to launch investigations in discrimination cases and to initiate and participate in court proceedings.[7]

20.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 There are specialized hate-crime units in provincial prosecutorial offices in the country, and an inter-institutional memorandum of understanding among national public administration institutions, including civil society organizations as observers. Furthermore, the Observatory on Racism and Xenophobia has developed and implemented training programmes for government officials, including law enforcement, and specific programmes on non-discrimination in areas such as health, education and the Internet.

21.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Office of the Ombudsperson was established through Organic Law No. 3/1981 of 6 April 1981, with the mandate to monitor the respect and promotion of human rights within the General State Administration (national State administrative services) and the regional and local administrations, and to launch investigations both ex officio and on the basis of received complaints. The ombudspersons of the autonomous communities also contribute to the human rights agenda at the regional and local levels.

22.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Finally, with regard to the Roma associative movement, the State council of the Roma people was established in 2005 through Royal Decree No. 891/2005 of 22 July 2005,[8] as an interministerial advisory body attached to the Ministry of Health, Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare, with the participation of a significant number of Roma organizations and associations. Its main goals are to develop and strengthen collaboration with the State administration, particularly in the area of social welfare policies, and to increase awareness of the human rights of Roma in Spain and strengthen the capacity for the protection and promotion of those rights. Similar advisory bodies were established at the regional level, for example in Catalonia, Basque Country and Extremadura.

V.聽聽聽 Positive steps and development

23.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The enormous strides made by Spain in the field of human rights since it transitioned to democracy in 1977/78 are not always fully appreciated or sufficiently acknowledged. The country鈥檚 more than 40 years of democracy has led to a modern and dynamic State that is fully engaged in European and international institutions, with an effective government, an independent judiciary and forms of autonomy that respond in part to the reality of a State with a rich cultural diversity. Spain is not a federation, but a highly decentralized unitary State. The 17 autonomous communities have greatly contributed to the more effective political participation of the country鈥檚 largest minorities, such as the Basque, Catalan and Galician minorities, and have provided means for recognizing and implementing the rights of such minorities in areas such as language and culture. This has been a defining development in the country鈥檚 path to a democracy that is more inclusive and embraces its historical diversity and the reality of its rich tapestry of languages, cultures and religions.

24.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Spain has made many legislative, institutional and policy strides in areas such as human rights protection, the combating of gender violence, and the inclusion of Roma communities, although many of the initiatives in these areas were hit hard during the severe financial crisis of 2008鈥2014. The operational plans established to implement the National Roma Integration Strategy in Spain 2012鈥2020, along with numerous other measures, have undoubtedly contributed to a decrease in illiteracy, an increase in school attendance and other positive and measurable outcomes. Spain recognized its two main sign languages in 2007 and has taken steps to ensure the use of sign language in a number of areas, although its recognition and support tends to focus on Spanish Sign Language and not Catalan Sign Language. There have been innovative initiatives to better assist and integrate the increasing numbers of migrants and foreigners, such as Moroccans and Romanians, arriving and staying in Spain, including some provision of information and assistance in their languages.

25.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 In 2006, the Government incorporated into its educational system a course entitled 鈥淓ducation for citizenship and human rights鈥, in accordance with recommendation Rec(2002)12 on education for democratic citizenship, issued by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to member States.

26.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Spain must be commended for these and other measures. However, human rights issues in relation to minorities at times feel like an 鈥渦nfinished story鈥. These include continuing challenges or lacunae in a number of cross-cutting matters, such as the language of education, as well as issues specific to long-established minorities or to more recent arrivals regarding the nature of their rights as minorities.

VI.聽聽聽 Areas of concern and areas for further improvement in the recognition, protection and implementation of the human rights of minorities

27.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Government has taken significant steps in recent years towards a fairly comprehensive strategy and initiatives to tackle discrimination, hate speech and hate crimes against minorities and other vulnerable groups. The Special Rapporteur urges, however, the Government to undertake additional steps, improvements and changes in areas where further efforts may be needed to ensure the country鈥檚 full compliance with its international human rights obligations in relation to minorities. Furthermore, he notes that some unfortunate developments need to be addressed. The elimination of human rights and citizenship education as a distinct course in schools, and its replacement with a more general class on civic and constitutional education as an interdisciplinary topic, in the academic year 2014/15, was not particularly helpful in terms of promoting an inclusive, tolerant society through education, and should be reconsidered.

A.聽聽聽聽 Disaggregated data

28.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Spain, along with some other countries, does not systematically collect disaggregated data on its population鈥檚 languages, cultures or religion, but does collect population data regarding gender and nationality (distinguishing between citizens of Spain and foreigners). This approach does not result in the precise information on the population that is necessary to design better-targeted, effective and evidenced-based government policies and programmes. As the Special Rapporteur has maintained on previous country missions, such data allows Governments to plan programmes so as to reach those most in need. This is particularly true with respect to measuring the impact that policies and programmes have on those who are most vulnerable and marginalized, including minorities.

29.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 This approach seems to be aimed mainly at protecting personal data and grounded in misplaced privacy considerations. Personal information can be removed from census data and other useful disaggregated data collections, as is done for the data collected on gender in many other countries. As some international and European organizations have noted, a non-disaggregated approach makes it particularly difficult to effectively identify those experiencing discrimination and to adequately build evidence-based policies that guarantee the provision of access to a variety of services and full compliance with human rights, even basic rights such as education. Authorities need to pursue and expand their efforts to improve practices for obtaining reliable data on equality, disaggregated by ethnic or national origin, language, religion and culture, in full respect of the relevant international data protection standards, in order to increase the effectiveness of measures designed to promote the full and effective equality of persons belonging to national minorities.

30.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 For example, clear and objective assessments of the impact of the different educational models using immersion, bilingual or multilingual teaching that are implemented throughout Spain would be greatly beneficial to dispel inaccurate and unhelpful claims regarding the pedagogical impact of those models on academic performance generally and regarding competence in the national and co-official languages more specifically. It appears that the evaluation institute under the Ministry of Education stopped collecting such empirical evidence in 2010.

31.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The view of the Special Rapporteur, and of most international observers, is that disaggregated data is indispensable to ensure that positive measures to address human rights issues, including those of minorities, are effective. It was made clear to him, particularly by members of civil society, that the lack of data collection is viewed with frustration and as preventing concrete progress on human rights issues involving Roma, people of African descent, migrants and others.

32.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur also recommends that, in the field of education, the evaluation institute under the Ministry of Education resume the collection of data on levels of competency in the acquisition of fluency in Castilian and co-official languages throughout the country.

B.聽聽聽聽 Law enforcement and judicial authorities

33.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 A number of minority representatives from particularly vulnerable or marginalized groups, such as the Roma community, people of African descent and migrants, vividly expressed to the Special Rapporteur during the mission how they remained distrustful and at times fearful of police forces and even the judiciary. While for a few migrants this may be connected to their precarious situation, if their stay in the country is not legal, others shared stories of ethnic profiling, harassment, ridicule and even violence from forces and officials who are supposed to protect. While ethnic profiling is not condoned officially by State authorities, it would seem that its practice has unfortunately not entirely disappeared. The Special Rapporteur was in this respect also informed that there continue to be large numbers of complaints to the Ombudsperson alleging excessive stop-and-search checks.

34.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Although praiseworthy steps towards eliminating ethnic profiling by the police have been taken, particularly in the training of national police, more such programmes need to be set in motion to more effectively and specifically address the phenomenon, which was described as endemic by the Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent in the 2018 report on its mission to Spain (A/HRC/39/69/Add.2, para. 19). The Working Group noted how provisions in the Law on the Security of Citizens, which imposed large fines for filming law enforcement agents and reversing the burden of proof, had had the perverse effect of people of African descent 鈥 and it should be added this is also true of minorities in general 鈥 underreporting discriminatory acts by law enforcement officials, and had also led to failure to investigate and prosecute perpetrators of crimes (ibid., para. 21). This was raised in some of the Special Rapporteur鈥檚 meetings with representatives of migrant communities as a significant factor contributing to distrust of the police and the judiciary: minorities felt that they were unable to present their allegations, since filming such incidents is illegal, and that they had to assume the burden of proof for any allegation of police misbehaviour. The Special Rapporteur was informed, however, by the Ministry of the Interior that Organic Law No. 4/2015 of 30 March 2015, on protection of public safety, was aimed at guaranteeing that the principles of proportionality and non-discrimination would be strictly respected in the identification of people for reasons of racial or ethnic or other personal characteristics. Allegations of racial profiling nevertheless persist. In relation to penalties for filming law enforcement agents, the Special Rapporteur was advised that the State Secretariat for Security had issued, in October 2018, strict instructions that filming or taking a photo of law enforcement officials was not an infraction as such. The instructions also clarify that after all physical searches, law enforcement agents must give the person searched a written statement including the reasons for the search, his or her identification information and a description of the incident. While the Special Rapporteur commends Spanish authorities for these clarifications, he notes that the legislation still in force could be seen to contradict the proposed strict interpretation, and that the practice of law enforcement agents in the field in 2019 did not seem to fully comply with the instructions.

35.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur was informed that a reporting formula that had been developed would require law enforcement officers to identify potential situations of ethnic profiling in their interactions with members of the public. This has apparently been used systematically only by the Madrid municipal police, although there are proposals for its expansion.

C.聽聽聽聽 Human rights framework

36.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Spain has, broadly speaking, a comprehensive legal framework for the protection of human rights. There are, however, some omissions in its well-developed and fairly extensive human rights architecture that may have a negative impact on minorities in particular. Article 14 of the Constitution and article 23 of Organic Act No. 4/2000, both dealing with equality and non-discrimination, contain a limited number of grounds for prohibited distinctions that do not include language 鈥 an omission that is potentially inconsistent with a number of international treaty obligations for which this characteristic is fundamental. While article 13, paragraph 1, of the Constitution does indicate that non-citizens are to enjoy the public freedoms enshrined in title I of the Constitution in accordance with the law and treaties, the use of the term 鈥淪paniards鈥 for those entitled to claim the right to equality without discrimination in article 14 is problematic, since it excludes non-citizens. Criticisms of the restricted list of prohibited grounds of discrimination in legislation and the Constitution have been raised previously by other United Nations special procedure mandate holders.[9] It should be noted that article 14 excludes language and other prohibited grounds of distinction commonly found in United Nations human rights treaties. This could be of concern in relation to possible discriminatory practices against linguistic minorities, including members of the deaf community who use Spanish Sign Language or Catalan Sign Language.

37.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 It has been suggested by Spanish officials that the above-mentioned provisions are open-ended, and that judicial and other authorities may therefore interpret them liberally in a manner consistent with the international obligations of Spain. No data were presented, however, to indicate whether that was systematically or necessarily the case. Thus, linguistic minorities can be susceptible to the vagaries of local or individual interpretation and application.

38.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government review and amend legislation and other provisions dealing with the prohibition of discrimination to ensure that any list of grounds contain at least those routinely contained in major international human rights treaties, namely, any grounds such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

D.聽聽聽聽 Racism, xenophobia and hate speech

39.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Another important area of concern for minorities is protection against hate speech and incitement to violence. The Government has made considerable progress in addressing those issues and must be commended for the establishment of specialized units to address hate crime, within the offices of provincial public prosecutors, and of a national special prosecutor to oversee the coordination of anti-discrimination activities. Other noteworthy protections, especially in terms of legislation, include article 510 of the Criminal Code, which criminalizes public incitement to violence, hatred or discrimination and the acts of those who, with knowledge of its falseness or reckless disregard for the truth, distribute defamatory information, which can often target minorities and other vulnerable groups. Following the Special Rapporteur鈥檚 mission to Spain, a circular clarified how this provision should be interpreted, helping to circumscribe more clearly its application, particularly to protect minorities.[10] Article 170 of the Criminal Code provides for greater penalties if threats are intended to frighten members of a minority and other identified groups. Article 22 of the Criminal Code identifies as an aggravating circumstance an intent to commit an offence on the grounds of racism, antisemitism, the religion or beliefs of the victim or his or her ethnicity, citizenship, gender, sexual orientation or gender identity.

40.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 While welcoming noteworthy initiatives such as that of the government-supported Observatory on Racism and Xenophobia, which collects information on hate crime and hate speech and conducts training programmes for educators, law enforcement officials and others, the Special Rapporteur notes that Spain, along with San Marino, are the only two members of the Council of Europe not to have an independent equality body. The Council for the Elimination of Racial or Ethnic Discrimination is still not an independent entity, engages in few activities and has few resources at its disposal. Proposals to rectify this situation were under discussion in 2019.

41.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur was informed that minorities such as Roma, people of African Descent, migrants, and religious minorities such as Muslims report that they sense that they remain the main targets and victims of intolerance expressed in hate speech. In addition, connected to events that took place in Catalonia in 2017, the Special Rapporteur received reports of an apparent increase in hate speech, vilification, vandalism, physical threats and even assaults against members of the Catalan minority and, to a lesser degree, other national minorities. Some reports suggest that authorities are not sufficiently responding to or prosecuting these allegations, thus indirectly contributing to an atmosphere of increasing intolerance against minorities and of nationalistic vitriol. While the Special Rapporteur is not able to comment on the veracity on the allegations, he notes that, among members of those minorities, as among members of migrant communities and people of African descent, there is significant distrust of the police and even the judiciary.

42.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Spain has developed a number of policies and approaches to these challenges that must be commended, including proposals for a more comprehensive organic law on discrimination and for a comprehensive strategy against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and other related intolerance, as well as institutional structures at the national, provincial and local levels, including the Council for the Elimination of Racial or Ethnic Discrimination and others referred to above. However, concerns were expressed that many of those initiatives were either developed without direct input or representation from the minorities affected, or still do not necessarily result in concrete implementation action. Issues such as the perpetuation of negative stereotypes of Roma in news items in which Roma are portrayed in a negative light, or in criminal cases where a defendant鈥檚 ethnic origin is regularly revealed when a Roma is involved, are recurrent and largely unaddressed by Spanish authorities despite the many initiatives and policies currently in place. Difficult challenges also remain regarding the dissemination of racist, xenophobic and antisemitic messages on the Internet and through social media networks. Such challenges need to be addressed more forcefully, both in terms of practice and in terms of what is permitted under current legislative and regulatory schemes. Particular attention should also be paid to growing signs of intolerance and hate speech targeting other minorities in light of the events of 2017.

43.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur recommends that a national review be conducted and strategic plan be adopted to combat all forms of racism, xenophobia and intolerance. It should be a priority that alleged cases of hate speech committed on the Internet and other media be more effectively investigated, prosecuted and sanctioned. As part of such an approach, a comprehensive review of school textbooks to incorporate more inclusive and positive portrayals of the country鈥檚 diversity, as well as awareness-raising campaigns and other activities for the general public celebrating its rich association with many cultures, languages and religions and acknowledging them as integral parts of modern Spanish society, should be considered. In addition, the Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government carry out high-visibility media and public awareness campaigns to continue its encouragement of an inclusive society comprised of many different cultures, religions and languages in order to try to counter an apparent rise in hate speech and intolerance against minorities.

VII.聽聽聽 Specific issues

A.聽聽聽聽 Discrimination against Roma

44.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Many Roma are highly integrated in parts of Spain, but too many still face significant socioeconomic disadvantages and even exclusion, as well as discrimination and prejudice in areas such as education, housing and employment. It was, for example, perplexing to hear that for the single most important area of economic activity for Roma, street trade, regulations varied from locality to locality, and that Roma could be subjected to numerous vagaries of application or treatment that were often arbitrary and dismissive 鈥 even discriminatory. It would seem sensible to take a nationwide approach so that this traditional and central economic activity can be carried out more effectively and be a positive step towards a more responsive and inclusive acknowledgment of this dimension of Roma identity. Another area of concern is that Roma have almost no representation in elected political bodies at the national, regional or municipal levels.

45.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Two issues in particular were often raised during the mission and need to be addressed: the continuing existence of segregated schools and the need to combat negative stereotyping in a more proactive way and with a much more positive image of the contributions of Roma people. The Special Rapporteur was impressed by the Roma parents and activists he met in Seville, who were eloquent in expressing their firm belief in the importance of quality education for their children, by Roma women university graduates, who serve as powerful role models for future generations, by the committed teachers and other officials of the government of Andalusia working tirelessly towards a more inclusive society, and by others who emphasized how necessary it was to challenge and take steps to displace the negative stereotyping that kept dragging down members of the Roma community.

46.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Despite uncontested and commendable efforts and progress in the field of education in terms of increased literacy rates in recent years, about 64 per cent of Roma children still do not complete compulsory secondary education, whereas for the general population this figure is around 13 per cent. The Special Rapporteur was informed that although not condoned by Spanish authorities, in public schools in some parts of the country, such as in the region of Seville, as many as 90 per cent of the students are Roma, partly as a result of non-Roma parents sending their own children to other schools (which they are legally allowed to do), instead of having them be seated next to Roma. The significant Roma population in the immediate area of the schools in and of itself did not explain the high concentration of Roma students.

47.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 More efforts are necessary to tackle de facto instances of educational segregation more effectively. Despite the National Roma Integration Strategy in Spain 2012鈥2020, which includes a specific line of action for developing measures to avoid the concentration of Roma pupils, there is neither a national study to detect the extent of the phenomenon nor a plan to combat it.

48.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur therefore recommends that a new national Roma integration strategy be adopted and that it include as a matter of priority more detailed measures, including steps for implementation, to avoid and reduce the concentration of Roma students in de facto segregated schools, and provisions for conducting a review to identify the establishments in which this is still occurring.

49.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur reaffirms that specific strategies and measures are needed to combat negative stereotyping of members of the Roma minority with more positive images. Also needed are initiatives that raise the general public鈥檚 awareness of the rich and numerous contributions of Roma people throughout Spanish history. The Special Rapporteur highly recommends that a national campaign be implemented to displace the negative stereotyping that continues to drag down members of this minority community. Such initiatives should be an essential part of an overall national strategy for combating the apparent rise of intolerance and hate speech against this and other minorities that has been observed in parts of the country in recent years.

B.聽聽聽聽 Language rights

50.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The handbook entitled 鈥淟anguage rights of linguistic minorities: a practical guide鈥, published in 2017 under the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on minority issues, emphasizes the central role and importance of language for many minorities, and the State obligations in that regard under various United Nations treaties and other instruments. The competence of autonomous communities in the fields of education, social services and other areas has led to the adoption of a variety of models and practices in the use of different languages in education and in access to public services, which reflect diverse contexts, populations and expectations.

51.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 One concern encountered on a number of occasions in meetings with civil society organizations and others from the Balearic Islands, the Basque Country, Catalonia, Galicia and the Valencian Community was the feeling, particularly in the areas of education, law enforcement and the judiciary, that there was a disconnect between the claimed status of co-official languages and the extent of their actual use and of the implementation of legislation. For example, it was pointed out that judges and law enforcement officials, such as the national police, are not subject to any requirement of knowledge of a co-official language even when based in an autonomous community. It has been suggested that this leads to a significant number of grievances and to frustration in some of those communities, and to unfortunate misunderstandings and even denial of or discrimination in access to public services.

52.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 As a general proposition, the human rights obligations of States regarding the use of minority and other languages in public services, including in public education, are based on the prohibition of discrimination on the ground of language. As outlined in the above-mentioned handbook, where State authorities can practicably use a particular minority language in a specific territory, and in the absence of any reasonable basis to exclude such use of a minority language, it would be discriminatory in international law to forbid the use of a minority language in administrative, judicial and other public services.[11]

53.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Spain made huge strides from the 1970s, as it moved towards a full-fledged democracy, in removing the previously existing prohibitions on the use of minority languages by State authorities, including the prohibition of personal names in non-Castilian languages. However, the Special Rapporteur was advised in the areas inhabited mainly by linguistic minorities in the Basque Country, Galicia, Navarre, Valencian Community, Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and others that in recent years judicial interpretation and other developments have generally led to increasing obstacles to the use of minority languages in a range of public services.

54.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Some of the issues raised include the weak use of the Basque language in areas of Navarre having large concentrations of Basque speakers. While existing legislation recognizes the co-official status of Basque with Castilian in the Basque-speaking regions of Navarre and the mixed-language zones, the use of the Basque language appears not to be sufficiently guaranteed or implemented, according to members of this linguistic minority. In Navarre, as in other parts of the country, judicial pronouncements have in recent years limited the permissible use of minority languages. This includes an October 2019 pronouncement of the High Court of Justice of Navarre that overturned provisions requiring bilingual public signage and notices in mixed-language and non-Basque-speaking areas, and setting aside any consideration of Basque as a merit in job positions unless absolutely necessary. Article 231 of the organic law on the judiciary has been identified as one of the obstacles to the full implementation by Spain of its human rights obligations in relation to the use of co-official minority languages, since it stipulates that in judicial procedures, judges, magistrates, prosecutors, clerks and other officers are to use Castilian, and that co-official minority languages will be allowed only if no party objects. In most cases, this has led to criminal, civil and administrative judicial authorities proceeding officially in Castilian. Furthermore, members of the public who may wish to use a minority language in such proceedings cannot be guaranteed that the magistrate or other officials would be directly able to understand the minority language if it were to be used. While in theory individuals may still use a minority co-official language even when Castilian is the language used for the proceedings, consistent reports in different parts of the country indicate that individuals are simply told to comply with the chosen use of the national language. In the view of the Special Rapporteur, this blanket obstacle to the use of a minority co-official language gives rise to concerns regarding compliance by Spain with its human rights obligations, particularly the prohibition of discrimination, as outlined in the handbook on language rights of linguistic minorities and the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities.

55.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 In light of what appear to be consistent impediments to the use of co-official languages that could be deemed to be discriminatory in some autonomous communities, the Special Rapporteur invites the Government to consider modifying article 231 of the organic law on the judiciary so as to guarantee a more directly exercisable right to use minority co-official languages jointly with Castilian, so that the proceedings before criminal, civil and administrative judicial authorities can effectively be held in both co-official languages.

56.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur was made aware of numerous other issues regarding the use of minority languages in autonomous communities. In Galicia, legislation and a number of initiatives promoting the visibility and position of Galician seem impressive initially, and the authorities of Galicia must be commended in that regard. However, many appear not to be implemented effectively, and the Special Rapporteur received consistent reports of members of the Galician-speaking minority being unable to use their own language, despite the apparent right to do so with public authorities in the region. Similar allegations were heard in other autonomous communities, such as Navarre. In addition, persons belonging to linguistic minorities who live outside of autonomous communities where their languages are co-official find it particularly difficult to use their language in most areas of public life.

57.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The issue of the language of education, and striking the appropriate balance, is particularly sensitive and challenging in Spain. This is partly due to recent judicial pronouncements that have emphasized the prominent constitutional position of the sole national official language, which, in accordance with article 3 of the Constitution, all Spaniards have the duty to know and the right to use, and what they may imply in relation to the right to be taught in Castilian as opposed to in co-official languages. It is also partly because educational policies, including those regarding the medium of instruction, fall within the competence of the country鈥檚 constituent communities, with 6 of the 17 autonomous communities having co-official languages in addition to Castilian. This multiplicity of languages in different regions has led to various educational approaches, leading to some claims that co-official minority languages are not being used to the extent they ought to be in education, and related counterclaims, and even claims from some parties that the use of minority languages in education may, in certain contexts, contravene the Constitution. In 2015, for example, the Supreme Court of Spain ruled against the Catalan school model of immersion, indicating that schools in Catalonia were to teach at least 25 per cent of their subjects in Castilian, including at least one core subject.

58.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Catalan school system is based on a linguistic immersion approach for all children that privileges Catalan as the main, but not exclusive, language of instruction; it is claimed that all children in the system effectively acquire fluency both co-official languages. It has been suggested that if there were less exposure to Catalan, many children from Castilian-speaking environments would not learn Catalan properly, as it is a minority language, whereas Castilian remains a majority language in the country and is therefore guaranteed daily exposure and even prestige. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and other international organizations have lauded the Catalan immersion approach.

59.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur has received numerous reports from minority groups asserting two other main areas of concern in education. The autonomous communities of Catalonia and of the Balearic Islands are concerned that there has been a gradual erosion of existing educational approaches that had, until now, it is claimed, offered non-segregated immersion models that were largely successful in achieving effective bilingualism among most children. In some other autonomous communities, such as Galicia and Navarre, it was argued that existing educational schemes were insufficient to effectively guarantee that minority children could be educated in the co-official minority language.

60.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Another point of concern for the Special Rapporteur was the absence of current empirical data on the impact of different educational models using immersion, bilingual or multilingual teaching methods. Such data had been collected throughout Spain before 2010. This lack of data collection may be feeding feelings that State authorities may not be fully meeting their obligations regarding the rights of minorities in the area of the use of language in education. It also may be creating concern among parents of non-minority pupils who feel they may be subjected to educational regimes that are harmful to their children鈥檚 academic achievement.

61.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur reiterates that, in order to dispel such concerns and to properly assess the impact of various educational models using different co-official and minority languages, the Government of Spain should reinstate the collection of national data on the impact of different educational models.

62.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The 2017 handbook on language rights of linguistic minorities highlighted the importance of providing education in a minority language. Where practicable, minority languages must be used as medium of instruction following general principles of proportionality. No one particular educational model is ideal or could possibly be appropriate for all of the different contexts of local populations or of the States involved. Nevertheless, the handbook does set out general principles, including the following:

Where there is a sufficiently high numerical demand, public education services must be provided in a minority language to the appropriate degree, broadly following a proportional approach. This includes all levels of public education from kindergarten to university. If demand, the concentration of speakers or other factors make this not feasible, state authorities should as far as practicable at least ensure availability of minority language teaching. In addition, all children must have an opportunity to learn the official language(s).[12]

63.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The handbook also makes clear that:

Language differences must not be used as an excuse to segregate students along ethnic or racial lines in education. When open to all who share the same language, regardless of ethnicity or race, the use of minority languages as a medium of instruction is neither discriminatory nor impermissible segregation.

To promote tolerance and inclusion, all students should learn about each other: minorities must not be prevented from understanding the culture and language of the national community as a whole or from participating in its activities, and the majority must also be given similar opportunities in relation to minority cultures and languages.[13]

64.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Each of the autonomous communities has in place different educational approaches and models for the use of minority languages as a medium of instruction or their inclusion as subject matter. Many autonomous communities implement more than one model within their own jurisdiction. It is beyond the scope of the present report to detail each of those approaches to determine which may or may not be consistent with the international obligations of Spain vis-脿-vis the human rights of minorities. The Special Rapporteur reiterates, however, that regardless of the model or approach in place, members of linguistic minorities have the right to the use of their language in education to the extent that such use is reasonable and proportional, so that children may, wherever practical, effectively acquire fluency in their own language as well as in a State鈥檚 national language.

65.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 In light of the commendations that Catalonia has received from UNESCO and other international commentators for its highly successful immersion model, the Special Rapporteur recommends that Spanish authorities, including at the level of autonomous communities, review any measure that might reduce the proportion of teaching that is carried out in the Catalan minority language in public schools.

66.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur also recommends that Spanish authorities ensure that appropriate resources, teachers, support personnel and infrastructure are in place so that children in autonomous communities with significant populations belonging to linguistic minorities have the possibility of studying in their own languages. Despite the existence, in many cases, of legislation recognizing such a right, in practice individuals in Navarre, the Balearic Islands, the Valencian Community and Galicia have indicated that they face practical obstacles or other limitations in exercising that right. For example, it was brought to the Special Rapporteur鈥檚 attention that some public schools in the Balearic Islands had opted for a trilingual model (Castilian, Catalan and English), which significantly reduced teaching in the co-official minority language.

C.聽聽聽聽 Participation in public life

67.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur joins colleagues who have already expressed grave concerns about restrictions placed on, criminal charges against, and the subsequent trials and sentences of political figures and protesters belonging to the Catalan minority. The Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression issued a statement on 6 April 2018 in which he urged Spanish authorities to refrain from pursuing the criminal charge of rebellion against those political figures and protesters.[14] He indicated that such charges for acts that did not involve violence or incitement to violence could interfere with the freedom of expression, including peaceful public protest and dissent. The Special Rapporteur on minority issues shares those concerns in terms of the signal this gives to minorities more generally. Non-violent political dissent by minorities should not give rise, as the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression also points out, to criminal charges, since such restrictions should only be imposed where they are strictly necessary and proportionate. The Special Rapporteur on minority issues points out that all 12 people convicted for long periods of imprisonment in connection with the October 2017 referendum are members of the Catalan minority.

68.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur on minority issues also agrees with the recent conclusions drawn by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention in its opinion No. 6/2019, concerning the extended detention of two members of civil society organizations (former president of the Catalan National Assembly, Jordi S谩nchez, and president of 脪mnium Cultural, Jordi Cuixart), and the former vice-president of Catalonia, Oriol Junqueras, charged with sedition for a failed bid to obtain Catalonian independence from Spain in 2017. He notes the Working Group鈥檚 conviction that the purpose of the criminal charges brought against those individuals was to intimidate them because of their political views.[15] He also notes the similar conclusions of numerous international organizations, such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and the International Commission of Jurists, in relation to the 2017 events, the subsequent prosecution of members of the government of Catalonia and members of civil society, and the use of excessive force by the police to break up peaceful activities.

69.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur observes that these matters arose from the expression of the views of the Catalan minority 鈥 and others 鈥 in relation to their continued participation and status in the polity of Spain. He also learned of allegations in Catalonia that hate speech against Catalans as a minority had increasingly been appearing in social and other media as a result of the recent events. Politicians and others outside the region had begun to paint Catalans as a threat and traitors who had to be dealt with severely, at times using violent language.

70.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 In the view of the Special Rapporteur, alongside the previous stated observations of his colleagues and other organizations, Spain has legal obligations to protect the human rights of minorities, including the Catalan minority, especially in relation to: freedom of expression, including political expression, in accordance with article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, in accordance with article 11 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights) and articles 21 and 22 of the Covenant; and participation in public life, in accordance with article 25 of the Covenant.

D.聽聽聽聽 Deaf community and the use of sign languages

71.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Members of the Spanish Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language minorities have seen considerable progress in Spain since the adoption of legislation in 2007 (Law No. 27/2007) that provides for the legal basis and conditions for using sign language in State institutions and services. Attitudes have also shifted: once simply considered as a tool to compensate for a disability, sign language has begun to be acknowledged as a fully functioning language. Current national legislation, however, continues to reflect a 鈥渟ign language as tool鈥 rather than a 鈥渓anguage as right鈥 stance.

72.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 A shift in the legislation would be welcome since, despite the 2007 law, there is still reluctance in some schools to set aside resources for providing children who are deaf with teaching in sign language, and implementation of the law itself still appears weak.

73.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur recommends legislative changes so as to ensure that Spanish Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language are more clearly acknowledged as full-fledged languages, and also recommends that Spanish authorities increase resources to increase the availability of bilingual educational facilities for deaf children and public services in both those languages. He also urges the Government to recognize both as official languages at the national level.

VII.聽聽聽 Conclusion and recommendations

74.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur on minority issues commends the Government of Spain for the enormous strides it has made in its path towards a more inclusive and tolerant society since the 1970s. He congratulates Spanish authorities for the strides they have made to accommodate and reflect the linguistic, religious and ethnic diversity of the country, and for their efforts to better recognize the invaluable contributions made by all its component populations, including Roma. Nevertheless, there remains room for improvement, particularly in addressing the serious obstacles that migrants and people of African descent continue to face, as well as what appears to be a rise in xenophobic nationalism targeting those and other minorities, including historical communities such as the Catalans.

75.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The following recommendations are intended to assist Spain in its efforts to better address minority issues and more fully comply with its obligations in relation to the human rights of minorities.

76.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Government should reconsider adopting a comprehensive law against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, including hate speech published on the Internet and in other media. In particular, the Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government take more action to counter the rise of hate speech, xenophobic and misogynistic discourse and the scapegoating of minorities among politicians and political leaders.

77.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Government should review and amend legislation and other provisions dealing with the prohibition of discrimination so that they reflect the grounds contained in major international human rights treaties, namely, any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

78.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur recommends that the governments of Spain and of the autonomous communities conduct a comprehensive review of school textbooks to incorporate more inclusive and positive portrayals of the country鈥檚 diversity, as well as awareness-raising campaigns and other activities for the general public celebrating the country鈥檚 rich association with many cultures, languages and religions and acknowledging them as integral parts of modern Spanish society. In addition, the Government should carry out high-visibility media and public awareness campaigns to continue its encouragement of an inclusive society comprised of many different cultures, religions and languages in order to try to counter increases in hate speech and intolerance against minorities, including negative stereotyping of Roma, migrants and people of African descent.

79.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur invites the Government to re-establish as part of the curriculum of public schools the citizenship and human rights course as one step in promoting an even more inclusive, tolerant society through education.

80.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government of Spain adopt a new national Roma integration strategy that includes more detailed measures, including steps for implementation, to avoid and reduce the concentration of Roma students in de facto segregated schools, as well as conduct a review to identify the establishments where such concentration is still occurring. He urges the Government to direct attention to improving the situation of non-Spanish Roma and strengthening measures to ensure that non-Spanish Roma can access public services without discrimination.

81.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 As part of a new national Roma integration strategy, the Government should include measures for better recognition of Roma cultures and identity, including with respect to teaching Roma history and providing more opportunities to study Roma languages in schools where in which Roma students are enrolled.

82.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur strongly recommends that the Government collect, compile, analyse, publish and disseminate reliable statistical data, in full respect of the relevant data protection standards, disaggregated along ethnic, linguistic and religious lines on the basis of voluntary self-identification, in order to have reliable tools for the development of more effective policies and measures for the protection and promotion of the human rights of minorities.

83.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur urges the Government to reinstate the collection of national data on the impact of different educational models, more precisely the collection by the evaluation institute of data on levels of competency in the acquisition of fluency in Castilian and co-official languages throughout the country, to assist in dispelling concerns about the impact of various educational models using different co-official and minority languages.

84.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Government should adopt legislative changes so that Spanish Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language are more clearly acknowledged as full-fledged languages. Spanish authorities should increase resources to expand the availability of bilingual educational facilities for deaf children and public services in both sign languages, and recognize both as official languages at the national level.

85.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur invites the Government to modify article 231 of the organic law on the judiciary in order to guarantee a more directly exercisable right to use a minority co-official language jointly with Castilian so that the proceedings for criminal, civil and administrative judicial authorities can effectively be held in both co-official languages.

86.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Spanish authorities should review any measure or practice that might reduce the proportion of teaching that is carried out in minority languages in public schools.

87.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur recommends that Spanish authorities ensure that appropriate resources, teachers, support personnel and infrastructure are in place so that children in autonomous communities with significant populations belonging to linguistic minorities have the possibility of studying in their own languages.

88.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Minorities have the right to freely and peacefully express their views on their position within the polity of Spain. The Government should, as a matter of priority, review the legal definition of the crime of sedition to guarantee that it does not unduly criminalize acts of peaceful civil disobedience, or impose disproportionate punishments for other actions related to the exercise by minorities of the rights to freedom of expression and freedom of peaceful assembly. In ongoing matters involving individuals who exercised their democratic rights to participation in public and political life, the Special Rapporteur urges the Government to comply with the principle of legality and certainty with regard to offences whose definition and interpretation may contravene international human rights standards accepted by Spain.

89.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Special Rapporteur reiterates his satisfaction at the willingness of the Government to engage in dialogue, cooperation and action to address issues and improve practices and policies involving the human rights of minorities. He hopes his report will support the Government in that process and expresses his willingness and availability to assist in this important endeavour.



*聽聽 The summary of the report is being circulated in all official languages. The report itself, which is annexed to the summary, is being circulated in the language of submission and Spanish only.

**聽聽 The present report was submitted after the deadline so as to include the most recent information.

[1]聽聽 The absence of disaggregated data means this is a broad estimate only, with actual numbers being possibly anywhere between 500,000 and 1 million.

[2]聽聽 While the draft report in English was shared in advance with the Government of Spain, the Special Rapporteur was not informed at the time that a Spanish translation was to be provided with his draft report. The Special Rapporteur would like to express his appreciation for the fact that despite these circumstances the Government of Spain shared its concerns and views in relation to the present report. These comments are contained in an addendum to the report.

[3]聽聽 Centre for Sociological Research, 鈥淢acrobar贸metro de octubre 2019. Preelectoral elecciones generales 2019鈥, study No. 3263 (October 2019), p. 38.

[4]聽聽 European Commission, Country Report: Non-Discrimination 鈥 Spain 2019(Luxembourg, European Union), p. 6. Available at www.equalitylaw.eu/downloads/4963-spain-country-report-non-discrimination-2019-pdf-1-32-mb.

[5]聽聽 Ibid., p. 9.

[6]聽聽 See https://asistenciavictimasdiscriminacion.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/TRIPTICO-Folleto-Servicio-de-atencio%CC%81n-INGLES-web1.pdf.

[7]聽聽 European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, 鈥淓CRI report on Spain (fifth monitoring
cycle鈥 (27 February 2018), p. 15.

[8]聽聽 See www.mscbs.gob.es/ssi/familiasInfancia/PoblacionGitana/docs/tripticos/TripticoCastellano.pdf.

[9]聽聽 For example, the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. See A/HRC/23/56/Add.2.

[10]聽聽 Attorney General鈥檚 Office, circular No. 7/2019 of 14 May. Available at www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-2019-7771 (in Spanish).

[11]聽聽 Special Rapporteur on minority issues, 鈥淟anguage rights of linguistic minorities: apractical guide鈥 (Geneva, 2017), p. 23.

[12]聽聽 Special Rapporteur on minority issues, 鈥淟anguage rights鈥, p. 16.

[13]聽聽 Ibid., p. 19.

[14]聽聽 Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=22928&LangID=E.

[15]聽聽 Opinion No. 6/2019, para. 119.




versió per imprimir