17-02-2021  (116 lectures) Categoria: Medicina

Abdominal pain and diarrhea

What causes abdominal pain and diarrhea?

Almost everyone suffers from diarrhea at some point. It may be accompanied by abdominal pain or cramps. Some of the most common causes include sensitivity to some food, bacterial or viral infections, and the use of medications or alcohol.

It can also be caused by stress or chronic conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Here we describe some common causes of abdominal pain and diarrhea.

Diarrhoea can be acute and occur suddenly, or chronic and develop slowly and last a few days.

Some of the most common causes of abdominal pain and acute or chronic diarrhea include:

1. Infection

man sitting on sofa holding his stomach in pain
A viral infection can cause abdominal pain and diarrhea.

Diarrhoea could be caused by a bacterial or viral infection of the stomach and intestine, called gastroenteritis.

Bacterial gastroenteritis can be contracted by eating or drinking contaminated food or water. Symptoms usually appear within a few hours or days after consuming contaminated food.

You can also get viral gastroenteritis, which some people call stomach flu, from someone who has the infection.

Symptoms usually go away without treatment after a few days in both cases. To relieve discomfort you can try home remedies, such as drinking lots of fluids, resting and taking over-the-counter medications.

Parasitary infections can also cause acute diarrhea and abdominal pain. This type of infection often goes away within a few weeks. Persistent outbreaks may require medical treatment.

2. Reaction to some food

Something a person has eaten or drunk can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and other types of stomach problems. Symptoms usually occur for short periods and usually go away a few hours after eating.

Causes of diarrhea after eating include:

  • sudden changes in diet
  • eating hearty, fatty foods
  • food sensitivity
  • celiac disease, in which the body cannot break down gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye and barley

According to some research, more than 20% of people experience food sensitivity.

It's not clear why diarrhea occurs after eating. Keeping a diary of what you eat can help. Once you know what foods cause the problem, it's possible to address it.

Remedies could include adding new foods and making dietary changes slowly, eating fewer hearty foods, and limiting or avoiding trigger foods. People with coeliac disease should permanently remove gluten from their diet.

3. Indigestion and overeating

Overeating can cause indigestion, diarrhea and stomach pain because the digestive system has a hard time processing large amounts of food.

Both adults and children may experience the side effects of overeating, but are more likely to occur in children. This is because children can't always tell the difference between feeling hungry and feeling full.

To avoid overeating, people can:

  • practice portion control and measuring food
  • filling the dish with high-fiber, low-calorie options, such as vegetables
  • take the time to chew food well

Another useful technique is conscious feeding, which involves paying attention to the taste and texture of each bite. This includes avoiding distractions, such as television, during meals.

4. SII

Persistent diarrhea may suggest a chronic condition, such as ISS. This condition does not damage the digestive tract, but may cause symptoms including:

  • Diarrhea
  • stomach cramps
  • Swelling
  • Gases

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), about 12% of people in the United States have ISS. Most of them are women.

There is no cure, but people can manage their symptoms by:

  • reduce stress
  • make dietary changes
  • get enough sleep
  • drink enough fluids
  • exercise
  • taking supplements
  • use medications

5. Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a group of conditions that damage the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), up to 1.3 million people in the United States have IBD.

Symptoms include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • abdominal pain
  • bloody faeces
  • weight loss

IBD could cause damage to the digestive tract, unlike IBS. So, it's essential that people with the condition manage their symptoms.

The goal of treatment is to reduce inflammation that causes intestinal damage and digestive symptoms. Options include medications, supplements, dietary changes, and surgery.

6. Stress

a man painting at table
Art therapy can help reduce stress and anxiety.

Stress and anxiety can stimulate evacuations, which can lead to diarrhea.

Stress could also play a role in the development of ISS or worsen symptoms.

There is a link between the brain and intestine, which may explain why stress can cause digestive problems.

For example, work stress can stimulate the gastric reaction.

People can reduce stress by:

  • meditation and mindfulness or mindfulness
  • regular exercise
  • deep breathing techniques
  • artistic or musical therapy

People should consult a doctor or mental health professional who may recommend medications, therapy, or a combination of both for persistent or severe stress.

6. Medicines and alcohol

Too much alcohol can interfere with digestion and cause stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting or other symptoms. People might consider limiting their alcohol intake to avoid these problems.

The Dietary Recommendations for Americans list moderate alcohol consumption as up to 1 drink a day for women and up to 2 drinks a day for men. You need to try to avoid alcohol for several days a week.

Some medications can also cause stomach problems, and many medications mention diarrhea as a side effect.

Medications that can cause diarrhea include:

  • magnesium-containing antacids
  • Antibiotics
  • chemotherapy drugs
  • excessive use of laxatives
  • metformin, which is a diabetes medicine
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Diarrhoea sometimes goes away after a few days of using a new medication as your body adapts. If diarrhea persists for several days after starting a new medication, you need to contact your doctor to suggest an alternative.

7. Pregnancy

Pregnant women often experience diarrhea and other intestinal changes, possibly due to hormonal and structural changes in their body.

Changes in eating habits and new dietary sensitivities can also cause diarrhea during pregnancy.

If diarrhea persists for more than a few days during pregnancy, you need to see a doctor for a checkup and counseling.

Constant or severe diarrhea can suggest a serious medical problem, especially if there is blood.

Other possible causes of abdominal pain and diarrhea include:

  • Appendicitis
  • certain types of cancer
  • cystic fibrosis
  • diseases affecting the abdominal organs
  • fecal retention
  • intestinal obstruction

People with diarrhea and abdominal pain should consult a doctor if symptoms:

  • they're serious
  • gradually worsen
  • last more than a few days
  • occur in infants, older adults, or people with weakened immune systems
  • they re-introduce thee regularly

See a doctor right away if diarrhea occurs with:

  • black, tarred or bloody faeces
  • Confusion
  • difficulty speaking
  • Fever
  • frequent nausea or vomiting
  • Irritability
  • jaundice, yellowing of the skin or white of the eyes
  • rapid heart rate
  • Seizures
  • symptoms of dehydration, such as dark urine, thirst, dry mouth and fatigue
  • eye problems

people selecting food from buffet
Eating healthily and not too much can help prevent abdominal pain and diarrhea.

Preventing all cases of abdominal pain and diarrhea is impossible.

However, the following tips can reduce the likelihood of developing symptoms.

  • follows a healthy diet
  • don't eat too many greasy foods
  • avoid foods you can't stand
  • limits alcohol consumption
  • avoid overeating by measuring portions of what you eat
  • reduces stress and gets enough sleep
  • stay well hydrated
  • avoids contact with people who have stomach flu
  • practice good hygiene when you prepare food and store food properly
  • takes precautions when traveling to regions where food poisoning prevails
  • talk to a doctor about the side effects of medications and ask about alternatives
  • treats chronic conditions, such as IBS and IBD

Another tip to prevent abdominal pain and diarrhea from developing is to take probiotic supplements. Some research can help prevent traveler's diarrhea and diarrhea from antibiotic use.

A 2016 study in the medical journal Medicine suggests that the risk of traveler's diarrhea could decrease by 8% and diarrhea from antibiotic use by 52% when probiotics are consumed.

The most likely causes of abdominal pain and diarrhea include:

  • Infections
  • food-related problems
  • medical conditions, such as SII

In cases of acute diarrhea, symptoms usually go away after a few days. Chronic conditions require long-term management to manage symptoms.

It is necessary to consult a doctor if you continue to have diarrhea after a week. And seek immediate medical attention if there are soft stools in addition to fever and other symptoms, or if diarrhea occurs in infants or older adults.

Read the article in English

ADVERTISEMENT

 

Last medically reviewed on June 11, 2020

8 sourcescollapsed













Medically Reviewed by Saurabh Sethi, M.D., MPH — Written by Jayne Leonard on June 11, 2020

Causes of abdominal pain and chills

Many diseases and infections can cause stomach pain and chills. These may include the common cold, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections and prostatitis.

Stomach pain may vary in terms of sensitivity. Sometimes it can be dull pain, and at other times, it can cause cramps or a burning sensation. Pain can also radiate to the back or other parts of the body.

Abdominal pain can also vary in duration and intensity. The pain may be intermittent or constant. Symptoms may appear suddenly or get progressively worse.

Those who experience stomach pain and chills usually have a bacterial or viral infection. Such infections can cause inflammation and irritation in the gastrointestinal or urinary tract.

Here's a list of some of the common causes of stomach pain and chills:

1. The common cold

Woman with abdominal pain holding stomach looking worried
A bacterial or viral infection can cause stomach pain and chills.

Most adults can expect to have two or three colds each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In children it's usually more.

The common cold causes symptoms including:

  • body discomfort and pain
  • Cough
  • Chills
  • Fatigue
  • headache
  • nausea or stomach pain
  • nasal discharge
  • Sneezing
  • sore throat

Symptoms usually improve after 7 to 10 days, although coughing can persist for 2 weeks or more.

Treatment includes home remedies such as resting, staying hydrated, and taking over-the-counter (OTC) medications.

2. Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis occurs when the stomach and intestines become inflamed due to a bacterial or viral infection.

The most common form of viral gastroenteritis is what some doctors call stomach flu. Other causes include reactions to food or medications.

About 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis are reported annually in the United States, according to a study published in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases. Which makes it one of the most common diseases.

Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include:

  • Diarrhea
  • headache
  • low fever or chills
  • muscle aches
  • Nausea
  • stomach cramps
  • Vomiting

Symptoms can last for up to a week. Some treatment options include resting, staying hydrated, eating soft foods, and taking over-the-counter medications.

3. Salmonella infection

Salmonella infection is a common occurrence in the United States that causes 1.2 million sick people a year, according to the CDC. People usually get infection from consuming contaminated food or water.

Symptoms usually begin within 12 to 72 hours of infection and may include:

  • Diarrhea
  • fever or chills
  • headache
  • Nausea
  • stomach cramps
  • Vomiting

Treatment is usually unnecessary, and most people recover within a few days. During this time, self-care measures can reduce discomfort. People with severe symptoms may require medication or even hospitalization.

4. Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UC) occurs when the urinary tract is infected by bacteria or other microbes. Women are at higher risk of developing urinary tract infections than men; 40% to 60% of women experience one in their lifetime.

Symptoms may include:

  • an increase in urinary frequency
  • an increase in the urgency of urinating
  • burning sensation when urinating
  • cloudy, strong-smelling or pink urine
  • fever or chills
  • pain in the pelvis or back, which can radiate to the abdomen
  • urinate small amounts of urine frequently

Most urinary tract infections will require antibiotic treatment, but some home remedies can reduce discomfort until the infection goes away. Home remedies include drinking plenty of water, avoiding caffeine and using a thermal pad on your abdomen.

5. Kidney stones

Drinking fluids can help kidney stones pass through the urinary tract.
Drinking plenty of fluids can help small kidney stones pass through your urinary tract.

When minerals and salts build up in the kidneys, they can form hard deposits called kidney stones.

A 2018 review in advances in Urology suggests that 1 in 11 people in the United States develop kidney stones.

These hard deposits may not cause any symptoms until they change position in the kidney or urinary tract.

Kidney stones can cause:

  • changes in habits and quantity when urinating
  • cloudy, strong-smelling or pink urine
  • fever and chills, in case of infection
  • Nausea
  • pain in the abdomen, groin, sides and back
  • pain when urinating
  • Vomiting

Smaller ones may go unnoticed through the urinary tract. It helps a lot to drink fluids and take painkillers until the calculation is removed.

At other times, surgery or other medical procedure is necessary to remove the calculation.

6. Prostatitis

Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland, which is just below the bladder in men.

It has a prevalence rate of 8.2% and is "the most common urological diagnosis" in men 50 years of age or younger.

Bacterial prostatitis, which results from a bacterial infection, causes:

  • difficulty urinating
  • flu-like symptoms, such as chills
  • cloudy or bloody urine
  • frequent urination
  • pain in the abdomen, lower back, genitals or groin
  • pain when urinating and ejaculating

Treatment may include taking antibiotics and other medications. Using thermal pads, making dietary changes, and making lifestyle changes can provide benefits for managing symptoms.

7. Mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis is passed from person to person through saliva; they call it kissing sickness or monkey. In addition to stomach pain and chills, symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • headache
  • sore throat
  • Rash
  • swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
  • swollen tonsils

Symptoms usually don't appear until 4 to 6 weeks after infection and last up to 2 months.

Treatment includes resting, staying hydrated and taking over-the-counter pain relievers. Some people may require medications for secondary infections.

8. Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes inflammation of the alveoli. In the United States, it is "one of the leading causes of hospitalization" in both adults and children.

Symptoms of pneumonia, which vary in severity, include:

  • chest pain
  • Chills
  • cough with phlegm
  • Diarrhea
  • shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • stomach pain
  • Vomiting

Pneumonia can be fatal for older adults, children, and people with a compromised immune system. If symptoms occur, you should always talk to a doctor.

Treatment includes taking medications, resting and using other home remedies. Some people may need to be hospitalized.

9. Inflammation of the gallbladder

Inflammation of the gallbladder, or cholecystitis, is swelling of the gallbladder, which is a pear-shaped organ located in the abdomen area.

Gallstones are the most common cause of gallbladder inflammation. According to a 2012 study in the medical journal Gut and Liver, about 10% to 15% of adults will develop gallstones. Other causes include tumors and infections.

Symptoms of cholecystitis, which often get worse after eating large or fatty portions of food, include:

  • pain and tenderness in the abdomen, usually in the upper right or central
  • fever or chills
  • Nausea
  • pain in the back or right shoulder

Untreated gallbladder inflammation can cause serious complications. Some treatment options include hospitalization, fasting, intravenous fluids, and pain relievers. Surgery may be needed to remove gallstones or the entire gallbladder.

10. Inflammatory pelvic disease

Inflammatory pelvic disease (PPE) occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria, including chlamydia or gonorrhea, spread to the fallopian tubes, uterus, or ovaries.

A 2017 research, published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,suggests that 4.4% of sexually active reproductive age women have PPE.

PPE doesn't always cause symptoms. Sometimes people only realize they have the condition when they have difficulty getting pregnant.

If symptoms occur, include:

  • bleeding between periods
  • bleeding during or after sex
  • Chills
  • difficulty or pain when urinating
  • Fever
  • abundant and odorful vaginal discharge
  • pain in the lower abdomen and pelvis

Doctors often prescribe antibiotics to people with PPE. Sexual partners also require treatment.

An untreated infection can cause chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

11. Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix, which is a segment of tissue attached to the large intestine.

Appendicitis affects 1 in 1,000 people in the United States, between the ages of 10 and 30, usually.

The condition causes pain in the lower right abdomen. This tends to get worse over time and may occur with:

  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • fever or chills
  • loss of appetite
  • Nausea

Surgery is usually necessary to remove the appendix.

12. Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis occurs when diverticulums, bulging bags that can form in the lining of the intestines, develop infection or inflammation.

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, these bags can form in 35% of U.S. adults age 50 and younger, and 58% of all people over age 60. However, most cases do not evolve into diverticulitis.

Symptoms include:

  • constipation or diarrhea
  • fever or chills
  • Nausea
  • stomach pain, which can be severe and persistent
  • Vomiting

Mild cases often go away with antibiotics, rest and dietary changes. Severe cases may require surgery.

Other causes

Stomach pain and chills may have other less common symptoms, including:

  • cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder that causes organ damage
  • epididymitis or inflammation of the epididymis, a spiral tube at the back of the testicles
  • heart attack, but only in rare cases
  • leukemia, a cancer of the blood and bone marrow
  • malaria, an infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes
  • meningitis or inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
  • pancreatitis or inflammation of the pancreas
  • peritonitis or inflammation of peritoneal tissue in the abdomen
  • scarlet fever, a bacterial disease
  • shingles, a viral infection similar to chickenpox
  • tuberculosis, a bacterial infection of the lungs
  • Weil's disease, a bacterial infection that is usually transmitted by rodents
  • yellow fever, a mosquito-borne infection

A person experiencing stomach pain and chills with a fever should speak to a doctor.
A person who experiences stomach pain and chills, in addition to fever, should talk to a doctor.

See a doctor if stomach pain and chills last longer than a few days, or if they occur along with:

  • diarrhoea or vomiting
  • Fever
  • muscle aches and pains
  • fatigue without obvious cause

If you have any of the following symptoms along with stomach pain and chills, you need to seek immediate medical attention:

  • breathing difficulties
  • chest pain
  • fever of 101 F (38.3 C) or more
  • loss of consciousness
  • stiffness in the neck
  • severe headache
  • severe vomiting or diarrhea
  • stomach ache that radiates to the shoulder
  • eye problems
  • Weakness

Many cases of chills and stomach pain are the result of a bacterial or viral infection.

Try the following to prevent infection:

  • Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or use an alcohol-based disinfectant.
  • Stay away from people with infectious diseases.
  • Avoid touching your eyes or face with dirty hands.
  • Disinfect kitchen and bathroom surfaces frequently, and regularly clean toys, door knobs, and remote controls.
  • Consider getting vaccinated when possible, such as those used to treat forms of pneumonia and gastroenteritis.
  • Do not share utensils, towels or other personal items.
  • Take precautions when traveling to other countries to avoid foodborne diseases.
  • Overseas, drink bottled water, avoid ice cubes, and don't eat raw or peeled vegetables or fruits.
  • Practice hygienic techniques for storing and preparing food at home.
  • Don't eat raw eggs.

Other methods of prevention and risk reduction include:

  • drink plenty of water and other liquids every day
  • exercise regularly
  • follow a balanced diet, with an emphasis on fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, lean meats, fish, nuts and seeds
  • use condoms during sex
  • talk to a health care professional about any health problems

The prognosis for a person with stomach pain and chills depends on the cause of the symptoms. They are usually not a cause for concern if the cause is a common cold, stomach flu, or other easily treatable infection.

Most of these conditions will go away within a few days when you use home remedies, medications, or a combination of both.

However, these symptoms may also suggest a more serious condition, such as pneumonia or appendicitis, but this is less common. If you experience severe or persistent stomach pain and chills, you should consult your doctor.

Read the article in English

ADVERTISEMENT

 

Last medically reviewed on May 28, 2020

14 sourcescollapsed






















Medically Reviewed by Saurabh Sethi, M.D., MPH — Written by Jayne Leonard on May 28, 2020

What causes yellow stools?

Normal stools are brown due to healthy levels of bilirubin and excreted bile. Sometimes a person may notice faeces of a different color, including yellow.

Stool can change color for many reasons, including diet and underlying medical conditions.

In this article, we discuss the possible causes of yellow stool in adults and children, and explain when to see a doctor.

Possible causes of yellow stool include:

1. Diet

Turmeric powder and root
Turmeric in the diet can cause stools to turn yellow.

Turmeric in the diet can cause stools to turn yellow.

What a person eats can affect the color of their stool.

Carrots, sweet potatoes, turmeric, and foods that contain dyes can turn stools yellow.

A high-fat or gluten diet can also cause yellow stool.

If a person regularly has yellow stools because of their diet, they should avoid fatty foods, processed foods, gluten, or anything that causes stomach upset.

2. Estrés

Stress and anxiety can have many physical effects on the body, including speeding up the digestive process.

As a result, your body may not be able to absorb all nutrients in food, which can cause diarrhea or yellow stool.

Taking stress relief measures, such as reducing commitments, practicing yoga, or therapy, can help improve physical symptoms.

3. Celiac disease

If people with coeliac disease eat gluten, a protein in wheat, rye and barley, their immune system responds by attacking the tissues in their small intestine.

This immune response causes tissue damage and compromises the guts' ability to absorb nutrients.

In addition to causing yellow stool, coeliac disease can cause the following symptoms:

  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Nausea
  • Swelling
  • Fatigue
  • headaches
  • Depression

There is no cure for coeliac disease, but the condition can be handled well by avoiding gluten.

4. Pancreatic disorders

Different disorders of the pancreas can cause yellow or pale stools. These issues include:

  • chronic pancreatitis
  • cystic fibrosis
  • pancreatic cancer
  • blockage of the pancreatic duct

In people with these conditions, the pancreas cannot provide enough enzymes for the gut to digest food. Undested fat can cause yellow stools that also look greasy or spurous.

5. Liver disorders

Liver disorders, such as cirrhosis and hepatitis, can reduce or eliminate bile salts in the body.

Bile salts are essential for food digestion and nutrient absorption. Removing these salts can cause yellow stool.

6. Gallbladder disorders

Gallbladder and gallstone problems can also reduce the level of gallstones in the body. This reduction can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

  • abdominal pain
  • Nausea
  • jaundice, or yellow-eyed skin and white
  • pale faeces

Treatment will depend on the specific problem of the gallbladder. Treatment for gallstones, for example, may include medications to dissolve the stones. In some cases, surgery may be needed.

7. Gilbert Syndrome

Gilbert syndrome is a genetic liver disorder that affects 3% to 7% of people in the United States.

People with Gilbert syndrome have periods when their bilirubin levels are too high. Symptoms include mild jaundice and yellow stools.

However, symptoms can be so moderate that most people don't notice them or know they have the disease.

8. Giardiasis

Giardiasis is a common intestinal infection caused by a microscopic parasite. It is commonly called beaver fever. The giardia parasite can be contracted by ingesting giardia cysts, usually by consuming contaminated food or water.

Symptoms of giardiasis include:

  • stomach cramps
  • smelly diarrhea
  • yellow diarrhoea
  • Nausea
  • Fever
  • headaches
  • weight loss

A doctor may diagnose giardiasis by performing a stool test. Treatment requires antibiotics and can last up to a few weeks. Rarely, infection can be prolonged.

In children, yellow, brown and green tones are common colors in faeces. The best stool color for nursing babies and children is a mustard yellow.

A doctor should be seen if a child has red, black, or white stools, as this may indicate a problem.

MEDICAL NEWS TODAY NEWSLETTER
Stay in the know. Get our free daily newsletter

Expect in-depth, science-backed toplines of our best stories every day. Tap in and keep your curiosity satisfied.

Enter your email

Your privacy is important to us. Any information you provide to us via this website may be placed by us on servers located in countries outside of the EU. If you do not agree to such placement, do not provide the information.

woman speaking to a female doctor
Talk to a doctor if the color change lasts several days.

Yellow stools are usually due to dietary changes or food colors. However, if the color change continues for several days or other symptoms appear as well, it is best to see a doctor.

A person should see a doctor if they experience any of the following symptoms with yellow stool:

  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • abdominal pain
  • faeces with pus
  • inability to urinate
  • shortness of breath
  • Fainting
  • lack of awareness
  • confusion or mental changes

The cause of yellow stool is usually related to a person's diet, but it can also be the result of underlying health problems.

It is essential to observe additional symptoms and consult a doctor if the yellow color persists. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause.




versió per imprimir

Comentaris publicats

    Afegeix-hi un comentari:

    Nom a mostrar:
    E-mail:
    Genera una nova imatge
    Introduïu el codi de seguretat
    Accepto les condicions d'ús següents:

    Per a participar en els comentaris l'usuari es compromet a complir i acceptar les següents normes bàsiques de conducta:

    • Respectar les opinions de la resta dels participants al fòrum, tot i no compartir-les necessàriament.
    • Abstenir-se d'insultar o utilitzar un llenguatge ofensiu, racista, violent o xenòfob, i no tenir cap conducta contrària a la legislació vigent i a l'ordre públic.
    • No enviar cap contingut amb copyright sense el permís del propietari. Si es considera oportú facilitar continguts d'internet amb copyright, cal escriure la URL completa perquè els altres usuaris puguin enllaçar-hi i descarregar-se els continguts des de la pàgina propietària.
    • Publicitat: No es permet enviar continguts promocionals i/o publicitaris.