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Juraments d'Estrasburg

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Los juraments d'Estrasborg (en latin Sacramenta Argentariae), son de manuscrits que foguèron redigit per oficializar una aliança signada lo 14 de febrièr de 842, entre dos felens de Carlesmanhe, Carles lo Calvet e Loís lo Germanic, contra las ambicions de son fraire ainat, Lotari Ièr.

Los juraments son redigits dins las doas lengas dels sobeirans: lenga alemanda (germanica) per Loís lo Germanic e lenga romanica per Carles lo Calvet.

Aquesta llengua és lo provençal o llemosí -LA LLENGUA PARLADA A CATALUNYA- SI LI DIUEN Romanç LLAVORS L'Romanç ERA EL LLEMOSÍ

La lenga romanica del manuscrit es uèi generalament considerada coma una lenga d'oïl, primièra atestacion d'un protofrancés[1]. Pasmens, d'autres cercaires supausan que los Juraments d'Estrasborg son redigits en occitan. En particular, lo lingüista italian Arrigo Castellani a publicat d'articles nombroses per demostrar l'occitanitat del tèxt[2]: lo situa dins un ancian dialècte occitan de Peitieus, ja que Peitieus èra dins una zòna occitanofòna abans lo sègle XIII. Tanben, segon una ipotèsi d'Hans Stroh, professor d'occitan a l'universitat de Munic, aquesta lenga romanica seriá per part d'occitan, pus precisament un ancian dialècte auvernhat del sud, region qu'èra una possession de Carles lo Calvet. [3] Lo tèxt contendriá tanben un fons lexical comun francés-occitan.

Extrach del jurament en lenga romanica

"Pro Deo amur et pro christian poblo et nostro commun salvament, d'ist di in avant, in quant Deus savir et podir me dunat, si salvarai eo cist meon fradre Karlo et in aiudha et in cadhuna cosa, si cum om per dreit son fradra salvar dift, in o quid il mi altresi fazet, et ab Ludher nul plaid nunquam prindrai, qui meon vol cist meon fradre Karle in damno sit."

Per l'amor de Dieu e pel pòble crestian e nòstre salvament comun, a partir d'uèi, e tant que Dieu me donarà saber e poder, salvarai mon fraire Carles per mon ajuda e en tota causa, coma òm deu salvar son fraire, segon drechura, a condicion que el faga parièr per ieu, e tendrai pas jamai amb Lotari cap plaid que, de ma volontat, pòsca èsser daumatjós a mon fraire Carles.

Extrach del jurament en lenga tudesca

Lo meteis extrach dins çò qu'es probablament una forma de francic:

"In Godes minna ind in thes christianes folches ind unser bedhero gealtnissi, fon thesemo dage frammordes, so fram so mir Got geuuizci indi mahd furgibit, so haldih tesan minan bruodher, soso man mit rehtu sinan bruodher scal, in thiu, thaz er mig sosoma duo ; indi mit Ludheren in nohheiniu thing ne gegango, zhe minan uuillon imo ce scadhen uuerhen."

Text

The transcriptions are edited, with abbreviations written out and some punctuation and word boundaries inserted.[1]

The image to the right is a scan of the original text. In the transcription below, two asterisks mark the beginning and end of the text visible in this scan.

Original text English translation

[Latin:] Ergo xvi kal. marcii Lodhuvicus et Karolus in civitate que olim Argentaria vocabatur, nunc autem Strazburg vulgo dicitur, convenerunt et sacramenta que subter notata sunt, Lodhuvicus romana, Karolus vero teudisca lingua, juraverunt. Ac sic, ante sacramentum circumfusam plebem, alter teudisca, alter romana lingua, alloquuti sunt. Lodhuvicus autem, quia major natu, prior exorsus sic coepit:

“Quotiens Lodharius me et hunc fratrum meum, post obitum patris nostri, insectando usque ad internecionem delere conatus sit nostis. Cum autem nec fraternitas nec christianitas nec quodlibet ingenium, salva justicia, ut pax inter nos esset, adjuvare posset, tandem coacti rem ad juditium omnipotentis Dei detulimus, ut suo nutu quid cuique deberetur contenti essemus.

“In quo nos, sicut nostis, per misericordiam Dei victores extitimus, is autem victus una cum suis quo valuit secessit. Hinc vero, fraterno amore correpti nec non et super populum christianum conpassi, persequi atque delere illos noluimus, sed hactenus, sicut et antea, ut saltem deinde cuique sua justicia cederetur mandavimus.

“At ille post haec non contentus judicio divino, sed hostili manu iterum et me et hunc fratrem meum persequi non cessat, insuper et populum nostrum incendiis, rapinis cedibusque devastat. Quamobrem nunc, necessitate coacti, convenimus et, quoniam vos de nostra stabili fide ac firma fraternitate dubitare credimus, hoc sacramentum inter nos in conspectu vestro jurare decrevimus.

“Non qualibet iniqua cupiditate illecti hoc agimus, sed ut certiores, si Deus nobis vestro adjutorio quietem dederit, de communi profectu simus. Si autem, quod absit, sacramentum quod fratri meo juravero violare praesumpsero, a subditione mea necnon et a juramento quod mihi jurastis *unumquemque vestrum absolvo”

Cumque Karolus haec eadem verba romana lingua perorasset, Lodhuvicus, quoniam major natu erat, prior haec deinde se servaturum testatus est:

So, Louis and Charles met on the 16th day before the calends of March (14 February) in the town that used to be called Argentaria but which is now commonly known as Strasbourg, and they swore the oaths given below, Louis in Romance and Charles in German. But before swearing the oaths, they made speeches in German and Romance. Louis, being the elder, began as follows:

“Let it be known how many times Lothair has — since our father died — attempted to destroy me and this brother of mine, committing massacres in his pursuit of us. But since neither brotherhood nor Christianity nor any natural inclination, save justice, has been able to bring peace between us, we have been forced to take the matter to the judgement of almighty God, so that we may accept whatever His will is.

“The result was, as you all know, that by the Grace of God we came out as victors, and that he, defeated, went back to his people where he was stronger. But then, motivated by brotherly love and compassion for Christendom, we decided not to pursue and destroy them; instead, until now, we have asked him at least to submit to justice as in the past.

“But he, despite this, not content with God's judgement, does not cease to come after me and this brother of mine with his armies. Moreover, he is devastating our people by burning, pillaging and murdering. That is why we now, driven by necessity, are having this meeting, and, since we believe that you doubt our firm faith and brotherhood, we shall swear this oath between us before all of you.

“This act is not in bad faith, but simply so that, if God gives us peace thanks to your help, we may be certain that a common benefit will come of it. Should I — God forbid — break the oath which I am about to swear to my brother, I release you from my sovereignty over you and from the oath that you have all sworn to me.”

Once Charles had finished off the speech with the same words in Romance, Louis, since he was the elder, then swore allegiance first:

[Romanç:] “Pro Deo amur et pro christian poblo et nostro commun saluament, d'ist di in auant, in quant Deus sauir et podir me dunat, si saluarai eo cist meon fradre Karlo, et in adiudha et in cadhuna cosa si cum om per dreit son fradra saluar dist, in o quid il mi altresi fazet. Et ab Ludher nul plaid nunquam prindrai qui meon uol cist meon fradre Karle in damno sit.”

“For the love of God and for Christendom and our common salvation, from this day onwards, as God will give me the wisdom and power, I shall protect this brother of mine Charles, with aid or anything else, as one ought to protect one's brother, so that he may do the same for me, and I shall never knowingly make any covenant with Lothair that would harm this brother of mine Charles.”

[Latin:] Quod cum Lodhuvicus explesset, Karolus teudisca lingua sic hec eadem verba testatus est:

When Louis had finished, Charles swore with the very same words in the German vernacular:

[Old High German:]“In godes minna ind in thes christiānes folches ind unsēr bēdhero gehaltnissī, fon thesemo dage frammordes, sō fram sō mir got gewizci indi mahd furgibit, sō haldih thesan mīnan bruodher, sōso man mit rehtu sīnan bruodher scal, in thiu thaz er mig sō sama duo, indi mit Ludheren in nohheiniu thing ne gegango, the mīnan willon imo ce scadhen werdhēn.”

“For the love of God and Christendom and the salvation of us both, from this day on, as God will give me the wisdom and power, I shall protect this brother of mine, as one ought to protect one's brother, so that he may do the same for me, and I shall never go along with Lothair in anything that, by my will, would harm him [Louis].”

[Latin:] Sacramentum autem quod utrorumque populus, quique propria lingua, testatus est, romana lingua sic se habet:

The oath that each of the two peoples (i.e. the assembled armies) then swore in their respective languages is, in Romance, as follows:

[Romanç:] “Si Lodhuuigs sagrament quæ son fradre Karlo iurat, conseruat, et Carlus meos sendra, de suo part, non lostanit, si io returnar non l'int pois, ne io, ne neuls cui eo returnar int pois, in nulla aiudha contra Lodhuuuig nun li iu er.”

“If Louis keeps the oath that he has sworn to his brother Charles, and Charles, my lord, on the other hand breaks it, and if I cannot dissuade him from it — neither I nor anyone that I can dissuade from it — then I shall not help him in any way against Louis.”

[Latin:] Teudisca autem lingua:*

And in the German vernacular:

[Old High German:] "Oba Karl then eid, then er sīnemo bruodher Ludhuwīge gesuor, geleistit, indi Ludhuwīg mīn hērro then er imo gesuor forbrihchit, ob ih inan es irwenden ne mag: noh ih noh thero nohhein, then ih es irwenden mag, widhar Karlo imo ce follusti ne wirdhit."

“If Charles keeps the oath that he has sworn to his brother Louis, and Louis, my lord, on the other hand breaks the oath he has sworn to him, and if I cannot dissuade him from it — neither I nor anyone that I can dissuade from it — then I shall not follow him against Charles.”

[Latin:] Quibus peractis Lodhuwicus Reno tenus per Spiram et Karolus iuxta Vuasagum per Vuīzzūnburg Vuarmatiam iter direxit.

With this completed, Louis left for Worms along the Rhine via Speyer; and Charles, along the Vosges via Wissembourg.

The following is the Romance vernacular part in its original manuscript form and a close transcription (with minimal editing):

Scan of the text Close transcription
Short extract

Pro dõ amur & pχρ̄ian poblo & nrõ cõmun
ſaluament. diſt di e/in auant. inquantd̃ſ
ſauir & podir medunat. ſiſaluaraieo.
ciſt meonfradre karlo. & in aḍ iudha.
& in cad huna coſa. ſicũ om p dreit son
fradra ſaluar diſt. Ino quid il mialtre
ſi faz&. Et abludher nul plaid nũquã
prindrai qui meon uol ciſt meon fradre
karle indamnoſit.

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ For a closer transcription, and a summary of proposed emendations for the passages in Romance, see Foerster and Koschwitz (1902, cols. 45–48).
  1. Bernard Cerquiglini : La naissance du français, París, Presses universitaires de France, 1991 (Que-sais-je ?) ; 3ena ed. mesa a jorn, 2007.
  2. Vejatz per exemple: CASTELLANI Arrigo (1967) “L’ancien poitevin et le problème linguistique des Serments de Strasbourg” [1969, Cultura neolatina, 29] [reed. in CASTELLANI Arrigo (1980) Saggi di linguistica e filologia italiana e romanza (1946-76), Roma, vol. 3]; CASTELLANI Arrigo (1978) “Nouvelles remarques au sujet de la langue des Serments de Strasbourg”, Travaux de littérature et de linguistique, 16; CASTELLANI Arrigo (1986) “Precisazioni sulla lingua dei Giuramenti di Strasburgo”, Actes du XVIIe Congrès international de linguistique et philologie romanes, vol. 9: Critique et édition des textes, Ais de Provença: Université de Provence.
  3. [1] [archive] Hans Stroh e lo jurament d'Estrasborg Blog de l'IEO 12, seccion departamentala d'Avairon

References

Foerster, Werner; Koschwitz, Eduard (1902). Altfranzösisches Übungsbuch, zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen und Seminarübungen. Erster Teil: die Ältesten Sprachdenkmäler (in German) (2nd ed.). Leipzig: O. R. Reisland.


External links

Further reading

  • Cerquiglini, Bernard (1991) La naissance du français, Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1991 (Que-sais-je ?) 3rd edition, 2007
  • Goldberg, Eric J. (2006). Struggle for Empire: Kingship and Conflict under Louis the German, 817–876. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  • Hall, Robert A. (1953). "The Oaths of Strassburg: Phonemics and Classification". Language 29 (3): 317–321. doi:10.2307/410027.
  • Hartmann, Wilfried (2004). Ludwig der Deutsche und seine Zeit. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Hartmann, Wilfried (2002). Ludwig der Deutsche. Darmstadt: Primus.
  • Lowe, Lawrence F. H.; Edwards, Bateman (1927). "The Language of the Strassburg Oaths". Speculum 2 (3): 310–317. doi:10.2307/2847721.
  • Rea, John A. (1958). "Again the Oaths of Strassburg". Language 34 (3): 367–369. doi:10.2307/410928.
  • Thompson, James Westfall (1926). "The Romance Text of the Strassburg Oaths. Was it Written in the Ninth Century?". Speculum 1 (4): 410–438. doi:10.2307/2847162.




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