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23-10-2023  (2507 lectures) Categoria: Llengua

Compound words - signal processor - image processing


A noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing and the different kinds are Proper Noun, Common Noun, Collective Noun and an Abstract Noun. Two nouns or one noun and any other parts of speech combine together to form  "Compound Nouns". They are usualy also called "Nominal Compounds".

Conditio "sine qua non" for adjectives in front of a compound

"WITHOUT A HYPHEN.. An adjective in front of a "compound word" qualifies "ALWAYS" the second member of the compound.."

Let’s explore these examples that beautifully illustrate how adjectives play a crucial role in qualifying compound words.:

  1. Digital image processing: Here, the adjective “Digital” indeed modifies the second part of the compound noun “processing.” It refers to the manipulation of images signal using a digital computer with various algorithms and techniques.

  2. Analog image processing: Similarly, “Analog” modifies “processing.” In this case, it pertains to the manipulation of images (such as photographs or film) using traditional analogic methods.

  3. Digital signal processing: Once again, “Digital” qualifies “processing.” This field involves analyzing, modifying, or enhancing signals (such as audio, video, or sensor data converted to stored bits) using digital techniques.

  4. Analog signal processing: Here, “Analog” modifies “processing.” It relates to the manipulation of continuous signals (e.g., electrical voltage) using analog circuits or methods.

  5. Digital signal processor: In this case, “Digital” modifies “processor.” A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized digital microprocessor designed for efficient signal processing tasks.

  6. Analog signal processor: Finally, “Analog” modifies “processor.” An analog signal processor would handle continuous signals using analog components.


Teaching Pronunciation p195: A COURSE BOOK AND REFERENCE GUIDE - Donna Brinton, Marianne Celce-Murcia, Janet M. Goodwin - 2010- 576pages

Teaching Pronunciation p145: A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of ... - Celce-Murcia, Marianne Celce-Murcia, Donna M. Brinton, Janet M. Goodwin - 1996 - 441pages

The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL Teacher's Course - Marianne Celce-Murcia, Diane Larsen-Freeman, Howard Alan Williams - 1983 - Google Books

An Analytical Dictionary of the English Language in which the words are ... - David BOOTH (Author of the Analytical Dictionary.) - 1830 - Google Books

Nominal Compounds or Compound Nouns are formed by combining or joining two main words.

The combination can occur as:

Noun + Noun – steam-engine, hydrogen bomb, armchair, honey bee

Adjective + Noun – mild steel, darkroom, five-rupee note, sweetheart

Noun + Verb – milk shake, headache, rainfall, snakebite, madman

Verb + Noun – run way, breakfast, flashlight, watchdog, cutthroat

Gerund + Noun – rocking chair, dining room, swimming pool

Noun + Gerund – glass painting, day-dreaming, rope-dancing

Adverb + Noun – underemployment, overcoat, afternoon

Adverb/preposition + Verb – outcome, outlet, off-shoot, offspring

Verb + Adverb/preposition – farewell, breakdown, send-off

The combination can be between two parts of speech also:

Noun + Adjective – seasick, snow-white, tax-free, watertight, sky blue


Adjective + Adjective – red-hot

Noun + Participle – fact-finding, heartbreaking, home-made, town-bred

Adjective + Participle – high-sounding, easygoing, full-grown, ready-made

Adverb + Participle – downtrodden, outspoken, never-ending, everlasting

Nominal Compounds are useful in avoiding lengthy sentences, avoiding waste of time. They serve to promote easy readability, brevity and clarity in technical writing. For e.g.: An engine which runs on steam be easily written as a steam-engine.

Examples for expanding the Compound Nouns:

  1. Watchdog – A dog which watches
  2. Rocking-chair – A chair that rocks
  3. Glass painting – A painting which is done on glass
  4. Runway – A way which is used for taking off/landing of the flights
  5. Dining-room – A room used for dining
  6. Flashlight – A light which flashes

Expanded Compound Nouns:

  1. Air supply – supply of air
  2. Animal behaviour – the behaviour of an animal
  3. Arithmetic unit – a unit in which arithmetic is performed
  4. Ball pen – a pen with a tiny ball as its writing point
  5. Battery car – a car which works on battery
  6. Battery valve – a valve of a battery
  7. Blast furnace – furnace of the type which works by blast of preheated air
  8. Butterfly valve – a valve which is in the shape of a butterfly
  9. Butt weld – weld of the type called “butt”
  10. Calculation speed – a speed with which calculations are done
  11. Calculator memory – memory of a calculator
  12. Cable television – television signals which is transmitted through cables
  13. Carbon dioxide – dioxide of carbon
  14. Cassette tape – a tape of a cassette
  15. Coal gas – gas obtained from coal
  16. Colour television – a television which displays pictures in colour
  17. Communication satellite – a satellite used for communication
  18. Computer technology – technology used in computers
  19. Concrete structure – a structure of concrete
  20. Condenser extractor pump – a pump for extracting from condenser
  21. Control centre- a centre which controls
  22. Control tower – a tower that controls
  23. Cooling tower – a tower that cools
  24. Copper wire – wire that made of copper
  25. Cylinder head design- design of the head of a cylinder
  26. Data input – input of data
  27. Diesel engine- an engine that runs on diesel
  28. Dish antenna- antenna in the shape of a dish
  29. Disk drive – a drive of a disc
  30. Energy source – source of energy
  31. Fire fly – fly that emits flickering light
  32. Friction losses – losses caused by friction
  33. Gas jar – a jar containing gas
  34. Gear mechanism – mechanism for operating the gear
  35. Grease gun – a gun used for ejecting grease
  36. Heat transfer – transfer of heat
  37. Heat treatment – treatment with heat
  38. Hot water – water which is hot
  39. Item code – the code number of an item
  40. Jet engine- an engine propelled by jet
  41. Keyboard – a board which is having keys for operation
  42. Laser printer – a printer that uses laser technology
  43. Letter press – method of printing using raised types
  44. Log tables – tables in which ready arithmetic data are available
  45. Lock nut – a nut that resists loosening under vibration
  46. Machine language- the language which is used for operating a machine
  47. Machine tools- tools for cutting or shaping materials
  48. Mains electricity – electricity which comes from the mains
  49. Mass production – production in mass
  50. Media support – support by media
  51. Mercury thermometer – a thermometer which has mercury
  52. Metal tubes- tubes made of metal
  53. Mild steel – Steel that is mild in nature
  54. Nickel alloy- alloy containing nickel
  55. Noise pollution – pollution caused by noise
  56. Pedal power – power derived from a pedal device
  57. Personal computer – a computer used for personal purposes
  58. Picture tube – a tube of a television designed for the reproduction of pictures
  59. Power cable – a cable conducting power
  60. Power source – source of power
  61. Radio waves- waves with electro-magnetic frequency
  62. Research laboratory – a laboratory for research
  63. Rice husk – husk from rice
  64. Road engine – an engine that runs on the road
  65. Roller mill – mill for rolling
  66. Silver extraction – extraction of silver
  67. Soil laboratory – a laboratory for testing soil
  68. Solar cooker –a cooker using solar energy
  69. Space travel – travel to space
  70. Spark plug – plug that emits spark
  71. Steel bar – a bar made of steel
  72. Stop valve – a valve made to stop the passage
  73. Temperature drop – drop in temperature
  74. Turret lathe – a lathe having a turret
  75. Underground cable – a cable that is laid underground
  76. Video screen – the screen on which video is displayed
  77. Water heater – a heater used to heat water
  78. Water tube – a tube containing water



Expand the following Compound Nouns:

  1. Air supply
  2. Battery car
  3. Blast furnace
  4. Butterfly valve
  5. Cable television
  6. Calculation speed
  7. Car battery
  8. Color television
  9. Communication satellite
  10. Computer aided learning
  11. Computer design
  12. Computer diagnosis
  13. Concrete structure
  14. Condenser extractor pump
  15. Control centre
  16. Control tower
  17. Copper wire
  18. Cylinder head
  19. Data processing module
  20. Design engineer
  21. Disc drive
  22. Dish antenna
  23. Ferrous oxide-coated tape
  24. Fire-tube boiler inspection door
  25. Flood damage