Six Decades of Channel Surfing:
El millor amic dels addictes a la televisiÃ³ (coach potatoe): El comandament a distÃ ncia, que compleix 50 anys aquest any, s'ha convertit en una de les peces mÃ©s indispensables d'aparells a la llar americÃ modern.
Per Michael Stroh personal Sun publicat originalment novembre 22 l'any 2000
"El clicker", "el zapper," el canviador "- el que vam triar anomenar-lo, la distÃ ncia de la televisiÃ³ Ã©s l'avi de tots els aparells, gairebÃ© tan indispensable per a la sala d'estar com el mateix televisor S'ha culpat de les cintures en globus. , la reducciÃ³ de capacitat d'atenciÃ³ i les relacions tenses.
Aquest any, el comandament a distÃ ncia Ã©s de 50 anys d'edat. GairebÃ© no puc recordar la meva vida sense ella - especialment quan la televisiÃ³ de balenes estÃ en el seu apogeu, ja que durant els dies festius. PerÃ² igual que amb altres dispositius moderns - des microones als telÃ¨fons mÃ²bils - els seus orÃgens i funcionament segueixen sent en gran mesura desconegut per a les persones que esperen que l'aparell funcioni sense falta.
La idea de la distÃ ncia de la televisiÃ³ va comenÃ§ar amb Eugene McDonald, el fundador de Zenith RÃ dio Corp Era l'any 1950, un moment en el qual podria comptar el nombre de canals en qualsevol ciutat d'una banda. McDonald, un exmilitar excÃ¨ntric conegut com "el comandant" pels seus empleats, no estava pensant sobre la conveniÃ¨ncia, sinÃ³ sobre els anuncis publicitaris.
En concret, McDonald estava pensant en el molt que menyspreava anuncis. Segons la seva opiniÃ³, sense comercials, televisiÃ³ de pagament un millor model de negoci per a la indÃºstria. "Ell va pensar televisiÃ³ per publicitat no volaria", diu John Taylor, historiador corporativa de Zenith.
Fins que els esdeveniments li podrien resultar dreta, McDonald volia oferir als clients que van comprar televisors Zenith una manera d'evitar la publicitat. El resultat va ser un dispositiu anomenat Lazy Bones: "! Prest-O Change-O nomÃ©s cal prÃ©mer un botÃ³ ... per canviar una emissora!" va dir un anunci d'hora.
Lazy Bones era car - al voltant de $ 355 en dÃ²lars d'avui - i primitiu: Els seus dos botons podrien encendre el TV encesa i apagat i canviar de canal. Va ser lligat a la televisiÃ³ per un cable prim, de manera que el dispositiu podria ser perillÃ³s: Ãs subjecciÃ³ sovint convertit en un filferro de viatge.
McDonald va ordenar als seus enginyers per tornar a intentar-ho. Un enginyer de Zenith jove anomenat Eugene Polley va tenir la idea d'utilitzar la llum per controlar la televisiÃ³. Jugant amb les peces de recanvi per aquÃ el seu laboratori, va crear una llanterna trucat format per semblar-se a una arma de foc "que la gent poguÃ©s disparar el comercial", diu Polley.
El dispositiu va ser anomenat el flash-Matic. Va arribar amb un televisor especialment equipat que tenia zones sensibles a la llum incrustats a cada cantonada del conjunt. Zap una cantonada amb el flaix-Matic i la televisiÃ³ parpellejat encÃ¨s o apagat. Apunten a una altra i el canal voltejat. Va ser Polley que va idear el que podria ser la caracterÃstica mÃ©s estimada de tots: el botÃ³ de silenci.
"Em fa pensar que potser la meva vida no va ser en va," Polley diu avui. "Potser vaig fer alguna cosa per la humanitat - com el tipus que va inventar el vÃ ter."
Zenith ven en forma de pistola prop de 30.000 flash-tica desprÃ©s del llanÃ§ament del producte en 1955, i va donar Polley un bo de $ 1,000 pels seus esforÃ§os. Un anunci primerenca va prometre, "llanÃ§ar molestos anuncis a travÃ©s de la cambra amb espurna de llum mÃ gica."
PerÃ², ja que alguns clients aviat van aprendre, Flash-Matic deixa marge per a la millora. La gent no podia recordar quÃ¨ cantonada de la pantalla controlada per quÃ¨. PerÃ² els grans problemes provenen dels sensors de llum, els quals van resultar ser sensibles tant al control remot, perÃ² postes de sol i els llums de pis mal colÂ·locats.
Zenith fÃsic Robert Adler, qui va ajudar a dirigir el departament d'investigaciÃ³ de la companyia, va ser lliurat a la tasca de millorar el disseny de Polley. El departament de mÃ rqueting Zenith va donar l'equip d'Adler un requisit addicional de disseny: El comandament a distÃ ncia no podia fer servir les bateries, per evitar que un client de pensar en ell televisiÃ³ havia trencat si les piles del comandament a distÃ ncia es va tallar.
Adler i el seu equip d'enginyers consideren l'Ãºs d'ones de rÃ dio, perÃ² van abandonar la idea perquÃ¨ les onades podrien viatjar a travÃ©s de les finestres i les parets. "Les ones de rÃ dio funcionava bÃ©", va comentar una vegada Adler. PerÃ² tambÃ© va funcionar bÃ© per al seu veÃ ".
A continuaciÃ³, els enginyers van trobar una soluciÃ³: ultrasons, ones sonores d'alta freqÃ¼Ã¨ncia inaudibles per l'oÃ¯da humana.
Els investigadors Zenith va construir un dispositiu de control remot que contÃ© quatre varetes d'alumini, cadascuna lleugerament diferent en longitud. En prÃ©mer un dels botons remots '4 causar un petit martell de ressort per colpejar el seu corresponent planÃ§Ã³ com una forquilla d'ajust, que emet ones sonores ultrasÃ²niques. Com cadascuna de les barres va ser una longitud lleugerament diferent, cada vibrar a una freqÃ¼Ã¨ncia diferent, que un micrÃ²fon i el receptor al TV podien distingir.
El dispositiu va ser nomenat Comando Espacial. El primer va sortir de la lÃnia de muntatge a la tardor de 1956. La tecnologia ha afegit $ 100 a l'etiqueta de preu del conjunt, de manera que les vendes van ser lentes per enlairar-se. PerÃ² en 1959, els comandaments a distÃ ncia per ultrasons es va convertir en l'estÃ ndard de la indÃºstria per a televisors top-of-the-line. Segons Zenith, mÃ©s de 9 milions de comandaments a distÃ ncia ultrasÃ²nics es van vendre durant el proper quart de segle.
El soroll produÃ¯t per aquests primers comandaments mecÃ nics tambÃ© va prestar el dispositiu del seu sobrenom durador - "el clic."
A partir de la dÃ¨cada de 1980, els comandaments a distÃ ncia per ultrasons van ser reemplaÃ§ats per dispositius que depenien de polsos de baixa freqÃ¼Ã¨ncia de la llum infraroja invisible per a l'ull humÃ . Aquests dispositius sÃ³n mÃ©s barats de fabricar i poden controlar un major nombre de funcions, donant lloc als comandaments a distÃ ncia 50 de botÃ³ vist en l'actualitat.
NomÃ©s qui ha de porta el crÃ¨dit per la invenciÃ³ del comandament a distÃ ncia ha estat un tema sensible per Eugene Polley, qui va observar Robert Adler al programa de Jay Leno fa uns anys s'atribueixen el mÃ¨rit per al dispositiu.
"Estem pugna", diu Polley, un vivaÃ§ de 85 anys d'edat, que munta al voltant del camp de golf a prop de casa als afores de Chicago que portava una gorra que diu "Rei del comandament a distÃ ncia." En el seu Ã tic, que tÃ© uns primers prototips de Flash-Matic i dispositius Lazy Bones.
"Crec que la baralla estÃ molt exagerada", diu Zenith John Taylor. "Una invenciÃ³ va durar un any, els altres 25 anys. La indÃºstria en general considera Bob Adler el pare del comandament a distÃ ncia."
El 1997, Zenith va guanyar un Emmy pel seu treball en el clic; aquest any, Adler, que ha dit que prefereix la rÃ dio i rellotges nomÃ©s al voltant d'una hora de televisiÃ³ a la setmana, va ser inclÃ²s en el SalÃ³ de la Fama de l'AssociaciÃ³ d'ElectrÃ²nica de Consum pel seu treball.
La llar mitjana tÃ© almenys quatre controls remots, segons l'AssociaciÃ³ d'ElectrÃ²nica de Consum. La majoria sÃ³n per a televisors i equips de mÃºsica. No obstant aixÃ², altres controlen aparells d'aire condicionat, persianes, ventiladors de sostre, xemeneies de gas, llums de la casa i les portes del vehicle.
Els ossos mandrosos i els seus successors han "totalment revolucionat" el mitjÃ de la televisiÃ³, diu Robert Thompson, director del Centre per a l'Estudi de la TelevisiÃ³ Popular a la Universitat de Syracuse. No nomÃ©s ha canviat la forma de veure, sinÃ³ tambÃ© la forma de cinema i televisiÃ³ escriptors treballar.
"La possessiÃ³ del dispositiu vol dir que vostÃ¨ ha de prendre una decisiÃ³ cada segon. Ãs aixÃ² avorrida? Â¿Estic encara avorrit?" escriu James Gleick a "mÃ©s rÃ pid: L'acceleraciÃ³ de gairebÃ© tot." "Ara tots els programadors de televisiÃ³ treballa en l'ombra de la consciÃ¨ncia que s'armi el pÃºblic."
PerÃ² si bÃ© va donar lloc a addictes a la televisiÃ³ i el canal de navegaciÃ³, la tecnologia no sempre fan la vida mÃ©s fÃ cil. "Veure la televisiÃ³ no Ã©s tan relaxant com el que solia ser", diu Thompson. "Hi ha una pressiÃ³, aquesta veu realment irritant a la part posterior del cap que segueix dient, 'Que s'estÃ perdent alguna cosa en un altre canal.
"Fa que t'agradaria poder tornar als vells temps."
History of the TV Remote Control
Channel surfing was born more than six decades ago. The first TV remote control, called the âLazy Bones,â was developed in 1950 by Zenith (then known as Zenith Radio Corporation and now a wholly owned subsidiary of LG Electronics USA).
The Lazy Bones used a cable that ran from the TV set to the viewer. A motor in the TV set operated the tuner through the remote control. By pushing buttons on the remote control, viewers rotated the tuner clockwise or counterclockwise, depending on whether they wanted to change the channel to a higher or lower number. The remote control included buttons that turned the TV on and off.
Although customers liked having remote control of their television, they complained that people tripped over the unsightly cable that meandered across the living room floor.
Commander Eugene F. McDonald Jr., Zenithâs late founder-president, believed TV viewers would not tolerate commercials and was convinced that sooner or later commercial television would collapse. While developing and promoting the concept of commercial-free subscription television, McDonald yearned for a way to mute the sound of commercials.
Flash-Matic: The First Wireless TV Remote
Zenith engineer Eugene J. Polley invented the âFlash-Matic,â which represented the industryâs first wireless TV remote. Introduced in 1955, Flash-Matic operated by means of four photo cells, one in each corner of the TV screen.
The viewer used a highly directional flashlight to activate the four control functions, which turned the picture and sound on and off and changed channels by turning the tuner dial clockwise and counter-clockwise.
Flash-Matic pioneered the concept of wireless TV remote control, although it had some limitations. It was a simple device that had no protection circuits and, if the TV sat in an area in which the sun shone directly on it, the tuner might start rotating.
Commander McDonald loved the concepts proven by Polleyâs Flash-Matic and directed his engineers to explore other technologies for the next generation. First thoughts pointed to radio. But, because they travel through walls, radio waves could inadvertently control a TV set in an adjacent apartment or room.
Using distinctive sound signals was discussed, but Zenith engineers believed people might not like hearing a certain sound that would become characteristic of operating the TV set through a remote control. It also would be difficult to find a sound that wouldnât accidentally be duplicated by either household noises or by the sound coming from TV programming.
Regardless of the specific system chosen, Zenith sales people were against using batteries in the remote control. In those days, batteries were used primarily in flashlights. If the battery went dead, the sales staff said, the customer might think something was wrong with the TV. If the remote control didnât emit light or show any other visible sign of functioning, people would think it was broken once the batteries died.
Next Generations: Space Command
Zenithâs Dr. Robert Adler suggested using âultrasonics,â that is, high-frequency sound, beyond the range of human hearing. He was assigned to lead a team of engineers to work on the first use of ultrasonics technology in the home as a new approach for a remote control.
The transmitter used no batteries; it was built around aluminum rods that were light in weight and, when struck at one end, emitted distinctive high-frequency sounds. The first such remote control used four rods, each approximately 2-1/2 inches long: one for channel up, one for channel down, one for sound on and off, and one for on and off.
They were very carefully cut to lengths that would generate four slightly different frequencies. They were excited by a trigger mechanism that stretched a spring and then released it so that a small hammer would strike the end of the aluminum rod.
Quarter Century of Ultrasonic Remotes
The original Space Command remote control was expensive because an elaborate receiver in the TV set, using six additional vacuum tubes, was needed to pick up and process the signals. Although adding the remote control system increased the price of the TV set by about 30 percent, it was a technical success and was adopted in later years by other manufacturers.
The ultrasonic device was developed quickly, with the design phase beginning in 1955. Called âZenith Space Command,â the remote went into production in the fall of 1956.
In the early 1960s, solid-state circuitry (i.e., transistors) began to replace vacuum tubes. Handheld, battery-powered control units could now be designed to generate the inaudible sound electronically. In this modified form, Dr. Adlerâs ultrasonic remote control invention lasted through the early 1980s, a quarter century from its inception. More than 9 million ultrasonic remote control TVs were sold by the industry during the 25-year reign of this Zenith innovation.
Todayâs Infrared Remote Controls
By the early 1980s, the industry moved to infrared, or IR, remote technology. The IR remote works by using a low-frequency light beam, so low that the human eye cannot see it, but which can be detected by a receiver in the TV. Zenithâs development of cable-compatible tuning and teletext technologies in the 1980s greatly enhanced the capabilities for infrared TV remotes.
In recognition for their visionary work, remote control co-inventors Adler and Polley jointly received Zenithâs Emmy from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences in 1997 for âPioneering Development of Wireless Remote Controls for Consumer Television.âÂ Â Broadcasting & Cable Magazine recognized âtheir groundbreaking contribution to television viewing â indeed, to the use of so many electronic devicesâ with the B&C Technology Leadership Award in 2006.
Polley, who died on May 20, 2012 at age 96, was honored in 2009 with the IEEE Consumer Electronics Societyâs highest technical honor, the Masaru Ibuka Consumer Electronics Award.Â Adler, who died on Feb. 15, 2007, at age 93, received the IEEE Consumer Electronics Outstanding Achievement Award and Inventor-of-the-Year Award from George Washington Universityâs Patent, Trademark and Copyright Research Institute, among other honors.
Their legacy continues today. Wireless remote control is now a standard feature on virtually all consumer electronics products, including TVs, DVD players and recorders, VCRs, cable and satellite boxes, and home audio receivers, to name a few.
This year the remote control is 50 years old. We can hardly remember life without it - especially when television-watching is at its height, as during holidays. But as with other modern devices - from microwaves to cell phones - its origins and workings remain largely unknown to people who expect the apparatus to work without fail.
The idea for the television remote began with Eugene McDonald, the founder of Zenith Radio Corp. The year was 1950, a time when you could count the number of channels in any city on one hand. McDonald, an eccentric former military man known as "the Commander" by his employees, was thinking not about convenience but about commercials.
Specifically, McDonald was thinking how much he despised ads. He considered commercial-free, pay TV a better business model for the industry. "He thought advertiser-supported television would never fly," says John Taylor, Zenith's corporate historian.
Until events might prove him right, McDonald wanted to offer customers who bought Zenith TVs a way to avoid commercials. The result was a device called Lazy Bones: "Prest-o! Change-o! Just Press a Button ... to Change A Station!" said an early ad.
Lazy Bones was pricey - about $355 in today's dollars - and primitive: Its two buttons could flick the TV on and off and change channels. It was tethered to the television by a thin cable, so the device could be dangerous: It's tether often turned into a trip wire.
McDonald ordered his engineers to try again. A young Zenith engineer named Eugene Polley hit on the idea of using light to control the television. Tinkering with spare parts lying around his laboratory, he created a souped-up flashlight fashioned to look like a gun "so people could shoot out the commercial," says Polley.
The device was dubbed the Flash-Matic. It came with a specially-equipped television that had light-sensitive areas embedded in each corner of the set. Zap one corner with the Flash-Matic and the television flickered on or off. Aim at another and the channel flipped. It was Polley who devised what might be the most beloved feature of all: the mute button.
"It makes me think maybe my life wasn't wasted," Polley says today. "Maybe I did something for humanity - like the guy who invented the flush toilet."
Zenith sold nearly 30,000 gun-shaped Flash-Matics after the product's launch in 1955, and gave Polley a $1,000 bonus for his efforts. An early ad promised, "Shoot off annoying commercials from across the room with flash of magic light."
But, as some customers soon learned, the Flash-Matic left room for improvement. People couldn't remember which corner of the screen controlled what. But the big problems came from the light sensors, which turned out to be sensitive not only to the remote control but sunsets and ill-placed floor lamps.
Zenith physicist Robert Adler, who helped run the company research department, was handed the task of improving Polley's design. The Zenith marketing department gave Adler's team an additional design requirement: The remote couldn't use batteries, to prevent a customer from thinking his TV had broken if the remote's batteries went dead.
Adler and his team of engineers considered using radio waves but abandoned the idea because the waves could travel through windows and walls. "Radio waves worked fine," Adler once remarked. But they also worked fine for your neighbor."
Then the engineers found a solution: ultrasonics, high-frequency sound waves inaudible to the human ear.
The Zenith researchers built a remote-control device containing four aluminum rods, each slightly different in length. Pressing one of the remotes' four buttons caused a small spring-loaded hammer to strike its corresponding rod like a tuning fork, emitting ultrasonic sound waves. Since each of the rods was a slightly different length, each vibrated at a different frequency, which a microphone and receiver in the TV could distinguish.
The device was named Space Command. The first one emerged from the assembly line in the fall of 1956. The technology added $100 to the price tag of the set, so sales were slow to take off. But by 1959, ultrasonic remotes became the industry standard for top-of-the-line TVs. According to Zenith, more than 9 million ultrasonic remotes were sold during the next quarter-century.
The noise made by these early mechanical remotes also lent the device its enduring nickname - "the clicker."
Eugene Polley and the Television Remote
May 25, 2012 Nikola Tesla patented the first remote control device in 1898. He used radio and a coherer detector to control a boat just a decade after Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the existence of radio waves. Tesla's 1898 patent was referenced by another patent as late as 2005.
The remote control devices that are most used, today, don't use radio waves. Television remote controls (see photograph, above) use infrared light, a technology that was practical to implement only after the development of the light-emitting diode. Television, however, has been with us since the late 1940s, and it's understandable that some form of remote control was wanted shortly thereafter. The simplest, but not very aesthetic, nor safe, solution was to have a wire connect a television with remote buttons. Eugene Polley, who worked for Zenith Electronics, a major television manufacturer, created the first true television remote in 1955. Polley's device used light, but not digitally encoded light as is used in today's remotes. Polley's data was spatially encoded; that is, you needed to point a light at certain portions of the television set for control. Polley died on May 20, 2012, at age 96.[3-9] In a story that was common in the past, but not much today, Polley, who was not a college graduate, began work at Zenith as a stock boy, and he worked his way into the engineering department. During World War II, he worked on ship-detecting radar and fuses for bombs. A patent application for his remote control device, called the Flash-Matic, was filed in 1955, but he continued inventing after that time, spending forty-seven years with Zenith and earning eighteen US patents. Polley received a $1,000 bonus for the Flash-Matic. The invention, which was only marketed for one year, grossed about three million dollars for Zenith. One of Polley's other inventions, which I wrote about in a previous article (Couch Potato Hero, February 22, 2007), was an ultrasonic version of his optical remote. He developed this with physicist, Robert Adler, who died in 2007 at age ninety-three. The ultrasonic idea was Polley's, and Adler's design was novel in that it didn't need batteries. Mechanical motion would ring metal tines that vibrated at ultrasonic frequencies. The ultrasonic remote was named the "Space Command."
||This later version of the ultrasonic remote, the Zenith Space Commander 600, was sold with color television sets between 1965 and 1972.
(Via Wikimedia Commons).
The metal tines were of different length, so they vibrated at different frequencies. These frequencies were detected at the television, although there was sometimes interference from other sound sources, such as jangling keys and spilled coins. Zenith sold more than nine million of the ultrasonic remotes between 1956 and 1982. Polley's "Flash-Matic" remote worked by flashing a light beam from a handheld unit onto one of four photodetectors in the television (see diagram). One photodetector turned the set on and off, two others changed the channel up or down, and a third muted the sound. The mute feature appealed to Zenith's founder and president, Eugene F McDonald, who thought that commercials were too distracting. One advertisement for the Flash-Matic states, "You can even shut off annoying commercials while the picture remains on the screen. Just a flash of light does it." The device worked, but televisions would sometimes be triggered by sunlight and room lights. The remote feature added about 20% to the cost of a television set. Nonetheless, Zenith sold nearly 30,000 "Flash-Matic" equipped televisions. Another problem was that Polley's unit needed a battery, and these were much larger and didn't last as long as the batteries in today's remotes. The ultrasonic remote solved the battery problem.
||Figure one of US Patent No. 2,903,575, "Control System," by E. J. Polley,
September 8, 1959.
I've highlighted the photocell locations in red.
(Via Google Patents).
Since Polley had developed the "Flash-Matic," and both Polley and Adler were involved with the ultrasonic remote, they are credited as co-inventors of remote technology. Adler and Polley were awarded an Emmy in 1997 by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. In a controversy reminiscent of the invention of another optical device, the laser, it appeared that Adler took most of the credit for the invention of the television remote. It was Adler, not Polley, who appeared on "The Tonight Show with Jay Leno." Polley's son is quoted in the Los Angeles Times as saying, "My father's point of view was that when somebody came up with the jet engine for the airplane, he didn't take credit away from the Wright Brothers... But Bob Adler tried to steal his thunder as the inventor of the remote control." Polley is quoted in The New York Times as saying, in a 2002 interview, "A father has to be present at conception... And if you're not, you're not the father." Zenith considered Polley and Adler to be co-inventors of the television remote. Adler, late in his life, admitted that Polley didn't receive enough of the credit. Adler thought that the remote was one of his least-important inventions. Polley disagreed, comparing the invention of the remote to the invention of the flush toilet, and saying it was almost as important as sex.[6,9] He would proudly show the original remote to visitor to his home.
- Nikola Tesla, "Method and Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vessels or Vehicles," US Patent No. 613,809, November 8, 1898.
- E. J. Polley, "Control System," US Patent No. 2,903,575, September 8, 1959.
- Brian Slodysko, "Eugene Polley dies at 96; inventor of wireless TV remote control," Los Angeles Times, May 23, 2012.
- Eugene Polley, inventor of TV remote control, dies at 96, Guardian (UK), May 23, 2012.
- Hannah Furness, "Eugene Polley, inventor of the remote control, dies aged 96," Telegraph (UK), May 23, 2012.
- Margalit Fox, "Eugene Polley, Conjuror of a Device That Changed TV Habits, Dies at 96," The New York Times, May 22, 2012.
- Hannah Rand, "The couch potato's hero: Inventor of the world's first remote television control dies," Daily Mail (UK), May 22, 2012.
- TV remote control inventor Eugene Polley dies at 96, BBC News, May 22, 2012.
- Emily Langer, "Eugene J. Polley, engineer who invented the first wireless TV remote control, dies at 96," Washington Post, May 22, 2012.
- Patricia Sullivan, "Robert Adler, 93; Engineer, Co-Inventor of TV Remote Control." (Washington Post)
- 1959 Zenith Space Command Television, YouTube video, May 29, 2009.
TranscripciÃ³n de the remote control
Ana paulina ramirez
10 c the remote control A remote control is a component of an electronics device, most commonly a television set, DVD player and home theater systems originally used for operating the television device wirelessly from a short line-of-sight distance. Remote control has continually evolved and advanced over recent years to include Bluetooth connectivity, motion sensor enabled capabilities and voice control History
One of the earliest examples of remote control was developed in 1898 by Nikola Tesla, and described in his patent, U.S. Patent 613,809, named Method of an Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vehicle or Vehicles. In 1898, he demonstrated a radio-controlled boat to the public during an electrical exhibition at Madison Square Garden. Tesla called his boat a "teleautomaton".
In 1903, Leonardo Torres Quevedo presented the Telekino at the Paris Academy of Science, accompanied by a brief, and making an experimental demonstration. In the same time he obtained a patent in France, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States. The Telekino consisted of a robot that executed commands transmitted by electromagnetic waves. It constituted the world's first apparatus for radio control and was a pioneer in the field of remote control. In 1906, in the presence of the king and before a great crowd, Torres successfully demonstrated the invention in the port of Bilbao, guiding a boat from the shore. Later, he would try to apply the Telekino to projectiles and torpedoes, but had to abandon the project for lack of financing. The first remote intended to control a television was developed by Zenith Radio Corporation in 1950. The remote, called "Lazy Bones", was connected to the television by a wire. A wireless remote control, the "Flashmatic", was developed in 1955 by Eugene Polley. It worked by shining a beam of light onto a photoelectric cell, but the cell did not distinguish between light from the remote and light from other sources. The Flashmatic also had to be pointed very precisely at the receiver in order to work.
In 1956, Robert Adler developed "Zenith Space Command", a wireless remote.It was mechanical and used ultrasound to change the channel and volume. When the user pushed a button on the remote control, it clicked and struck a bar, hence the term "clicker". Each bar emitted a different frequency and circuits in the television detected this sound. The invention of the transistor made possible cheaper electronic remotes that contained a piezoelectric crystal that was fed by an oscillating electric current at a frequency near or above the upper threshold of human hearing, though still audible to dogs.
The receiver contained a microphone attached to a circuit that was tuned to the same frequency. Some problems with this method were that the receiver could be triggered accidentally by naturally occurring noises, and some people could hear the piercing ultrasonic signals. There was an incident in which a toy xylophone changed the channels on such sets because some of the overtones from the xylophone matched the remote's ultrasonic frequency
The Zenith Space Commander Six hundred remote control (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
The first remote-controlled model aeroplane flew in 1932, and the use of remote control technology for military purposes was worked intensively during the Second World War, one result of this being the German Wasserfall missile.
By the late 1930s, several radio manufacturers offered remote controls for some of their higher-end models. Most of these were connected to the set being controlled by wires, but the Philco Mystery Control (1939) was a battery-operated low-frequency radio transmitter, thus making it the first wireless remote control for a consumer electronics device.
The first remote intended to control a television was developed by Zenith Radio Corporation in 1950. The remote, called "Lazy Bones", was connected to the television by a wire. A wireless remote control, the "Flashmatic", was developed in 1955 by Eugene Polley. It worked by shining a beam of light onto a photoelectric cell, but the cell did not distinguish between light from the remote and light from other sources. The Flashmatic also had to be pointed very precisely at the receiver in order to work. In 1956, Robert Adler developed "Zenith Space Command", a wireless remote.It was mechanical and used ultrasound to change the channel and volume. When the user pushed a button on the remote control, it clicked and struck a bar, hence the term "clicker".
Each bar emitted a different frequency and circuits in the television detected this sound. The invention of the transistor made possible cheaper electronic remotes that contained a piezoelectric crystal that was fed by an oscillating electric current at a frequency near or above the upper threshold of human hearing, though still audible to dogs. The receiver contained a microphone attached to a circuit that was tuned to the same frequency. Some problems with this method were that the receiver could be triggered accidentally by naturally occurring noises, and some people could hear the piercing ultrasonic signals. There was an incident in which a toy xylophone changed the channels on such sets because some of the overtones from the xylophone matched the remote's ultrasonic frequency
The Zenith Space Commander Six hundred remote control l Most remote controls for electronic appliances use a near infrared diode to emit a beam of light that reaches the device. A 940 nm wavelength LED is typical. This infrared light is invisible to the human eye, but picked up by sensors on the receiving device. Video cameras see the diode as if it produces visible purple light.
With a single channel (single-function, one-button) remote control the presence of a carrier signal can be used to trigger a function. For multi-channel (normal multi-function) remote controls more sophisticated procedures are necessary
decided to go straight down the pathway Zenith had tracked out. In fact ... Radio-frequency remotes were less reliable than ultrasonics because they might shareÂ ...
The ultrasonics community lost one of its most prolific inventors when Robert Adler ... he joined the research group at Zenith, he played an increasingly important role ... His recent work has largely been in the field of display devices and touchÂ ...
A short year later, a man working for the Zenith Radio Corporation by the name of ... a button down, against a specific bar which created a specific frequency. ... Using the ultrasonic method, the "Zenith Space Command" television remote wasÂ ...
16 febr. 2007 - Dr. Adler's "Space Command" ultrasonic remote control for TV sets was ... or IEEE) for his "original work on ultrasonic remote controls" for television. ... Dr. Adler's six-decade career with Zenith Electronics Corporation ... During World War II, Dr. Adler worked on high-frequency magnetostrictive oscillators forÂ ...
Rao, Navalgund, "Frequency modulated pulse for ultrasonic imaging in an ... Within the frame work of short microsecond pulses used in ... digitized with a Zenith computer oscilloscope (RS232 interfaced to IBM-XT) at a sampling rate of.
Lower radio frequencies are onmidirectional. ... used, a user of a radio remote control had a good chance of operating another's garage door. ... recorders) AC wire carrier (X-10 home lighting control) Ultrasonic (Zenith Space Commander;Â ...
An ultrasonic remote control receiver wherein an incoming ultrasonic signal is converted to square wave pulses of the same frequency by a ... 2 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the circuit according to FIG. ..... US4010423 *, Jun 26, 1975, Mar 1, 1977, Zenith Radio Corporation, Multi-function remote control ic.
Vol. 51, nÃºm. 761 - âRevista
The sound of an onion skin shows up the cells Zenith's new acoustic ... acoustic miscroscope to have been built but it uses a higher ultrasonic frequency than itsÂ ...
of the ultrasonic remote, once again pioneered by Zenith. ... 70s, some short-term improvements were gained by modulating the ultrasonic frequencies onto ... the late 1970s, Matsushita, Philips, Zenith and others were all working on signalingÂ ...
Vol. 106, nÃºm. 4 - âRevista
No wires or connections of any kind are required by ultrasonic control box ... the Zenith Radio Corporation announces a remote-control device employing ultrasonic ... but eight ounces, the waves are at too high a frequency to be heard or felt.